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Full text of "The Heritage Lodge no. 730, A.F. & A.M., G.R.C. : proceedings 1986-1987"

The Heritage Lodge 

No. 730, A.F.& A.M., G.R.C. 




Instituted: Sept. 2\ 1977 
Constituted: Sept. 23, 1987 

PROCEEDINGS 



Vol. 10, 1986 - 1987 



Worshipful Master 

W.Bix>. Altwrt A. Barker 



Editor R.W.Bro. Jacob (Jack) Pos 

10 M«yfl*ld Av*nua, 
Qudph, Ont, N1Q 2L8 
(519) 821-4995 



FORWARD 

It is a priviledge to write the intro- 
duction to the proceedings for this year. 

Our meetings in Cambridge have been 
complemented with additional meetings 
held in Brantford and Belleville. The 
highlight of the year was our Annual 
Heritage Banquet* in Toronto, with an 
excellent address by, V.W.Bro. Matthews. 

I would be remiss if I did not express 
our sincere gratitude to, R.W.Bro. 
Balfour LeGresley, on the successful 
completion of the C.M.R.A. Project. We 
are also indebted to, Bro. Basil Liaskis, 
for his generosity in the gift of The 
Black Creek Temple painting and limited 
edition prints to The Heritage Lodge. 

The Heritage Lodge No. 730, is the 
first regularly Constituted Historical 
Lodge in Ontario, and as such our seven 
objectives are well defined. It is 
because of the uniqueness of the lodge 
that we must endeavour to implement 
important changes in our By-Laws to 
reflect on its true characteristics. 
Meaningful changes come slowly, but the 
significant work accomplished in the ten 
short years must be recognized in the 
unique structure by which this lodge is 
governed . 

We look forward to the future, as we 
continue to preserve our masonic past. 

It has been an honour to serve as 
Worshipful Master. 

Albert A. Barker, W.M. 

1 




ALBERT ARTHUR BARKER 
Worshipful Master, 1986-1987 

Initiated in Reba Lodge No. 515, 1974 

Worshipful Master Reba Lodge No. 515, 1979 

Charter Member The Heritage Lodge No. 730, 1977 

Murton Lodge of Perfection, A.&A.S.R., 1976 

Hamilton Sovereign Chapter Rose Croix, 1977 

Moore Sovereign Consistory, Hamilton, 1978 

President Brantford Scottish Rite Assoc, 1982 



EDITORIAL COMMENTS 

Two of the papers presented this year 
were complemented with coloured slides. 
Only those in attendance at our September 
meeting could fully appreciate the 
illustrated presentation by W.Bro. John 
Boersma titled "The Vienna Triad'. He 
gave us a colourful insight into the 
influence of Mozart, Beethoven and Haydn, 
not only on music in general, but also 
that which had a pronounced effect on 
Freemasonry . 

Slides were also effectively used by 
one of the reviewers of the paper on 
"Worshipful Brother Joseph Brant'. Bro. 
Mitchell in his formal presentation and 
detailed rebuttal added new information 
on this famous Mohawk Chief who played a 
major role in the early history of North 
Amer i ca • 

Those who attended the Third Annual 
Heritage Banquet, were privileged to hear 
Dr. B.C. Matthews, President of the 
University of Guelph, discuss a compar- 
ison between the twin columns that 
support a modern university namely, the 
pursuit of science and humanistic 
studies, and the parallel search for 
knowledge and moral values of Free- 
masonr y . 

We are taken on a very pleasant journey 
through the Masonic works of Rudyard 
Kipling by R. W.Bro. David Warren; who 
shows us how Freemasonry, particularly 
the Ritual, has influenced the production 
of so many of Kipling's poems and 
stories. Unfortunately there was no 
review of this paper. We would be 



interested in receiving your comments 
concerning the number of reviewers for a 
paper, and also concerning the guidelines 
for preparing papers for presentation at 
our meetings, (see page 156). 



DISCLAIMER 

The contributors to the Proceedings of 
this Lodge are alone responsible for the 
opinions expressed and also for the 
accuracy of the statements made therein. 
The opinions expressed by the contribu- 
tors do not necessarily reflect the 
opinions, attitudes or policies of The 
Heritage Lodge No. 730, G.R.C. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 

Forward , 1 

The Worshipful Master, W.Bro. Albert A. 

Barker, 2 

Editorial Comment s, 3 

Disclaimer, 4 

Table of Contents, 5 

.The Vienna Triad, by W.Bro. J. Boersma, 6 
Paper Review by: R. W.Bro. W.E. McLeod,.56 
Response to Review by, W.Bro. John 

Boersma, 59 

Knowledge - The University, and 

Moral Val ue s , 

by V. W.Bro. B.C. Matthews, .... 61 
-Worshipful Brother Joseph Brant, 

by Bro. Wm . W. Mitchell, 76 

Paper Reviews by: 

W.Bro. Malcolm Montgomery, ... 95 

R. W.Bro. Wallace E. McLeod, .. 102 

R. W.Bro. Jack Pos, 105 

Response to Reviewers, 

by Bro. Wm . W. Mitchell, 117 

Rudyard Kipling, 

by R. W.Bro. E. David Warren,.. 139 
Guidelines for Preparing Historical 

Papers, 156 

Our Departed Brethren, 163 

Past Master, V. W.Bro. George E. 

Zwicker, 165 

Lodge Officers and Committees, 167 



THE VIENNA TRIAD* 



by 

W.Bro. John Boersma 



A 'Triad' is a harmonious chord, which 
consists of a key note simultaneously 
heard, together with its third and fifth. 

Vienna, nestled at the foothills of the 
Alps, in the Hungarian plain, was a 
natural meeting place. Here, the great 
ancient highways met, from the Baltic to 
the Mediterranean at that mighty blue 
river, the Danube or Donau . 

Along these routes, Celts, Romans, 
Turks, French, Poles and all kinds of 
nations and races came, marching, fight- 
ing, trading, settling, praying and 
singing. 

Gathered around our great Masonic 
Light, surrounded by wisdom, beauty and 
strength, we dare introduce you to three 
giants of music, who carried the standard 
of harmony from the age of the baroque, 
through the century of "Enlightenment" 
into the very generation of Romance. 



Paper presented at the Regular 
Meeting of The Heritage Lodge held in the 
Preston-Hespeler Masonic Temple, 
Cambridge, Wednesday, Sept. 17, 1986. 



For a background, we ask your indul- 
gence to reach back in time. 

"THE BEST THING» WHICH WE DERIVE FROM 
HISTORY, IS THE ENTHUSIASM IT RAISES 
IN US." - Goethe 

Frederick, the Wise, the elector of 
Saxony, appointed a gifted Augustinian 
Monk to become professor at the Univers- 
ity in Wittenberg. His faculty ... The 
Volume of the Sacred Law. 

This ascetic monk had long been engaged 
in a spiritual struggle, in a quest for 
peace of mind and a gracious understand- 
ing of God • 

During the winter months of 1512-1513, 
this sensitive, high-strung priest was 
meditating on St. Paul to the Romans, 
Chapter 1:16-17. 

"For I as not ashamed of the 
Gospel of Christ: For it is in the 
power of God unto salvation to 
everyone that believeth: To the 
Jew first and also to the Greek. 
For therein is the righteousness 
of God revealed, from faith to 
faith ... as it is written ... The 
just shall live by Faith." 

Martin Luther (1483-1546), the profound 
religious genius, was to find at last the 
peace he had searched for . . . and soon he 
was to revolt against the mercenary and 
selfish ecclesiastical institutions of 
his day . 

Soon, freedom of conscience would be 
interpreted as freedom from feudal and 



ecclesiastical oppression ... soon 
thousands of peasants would revolt and 
perish. Man's "RIGHT" to interpret the 
Bible according to his own conscience, 
would become the foundation stone of a 
new religious freedom and the Holy Roman 
Empire would never be the same again. 

The monk, who, as a youth, earned his 
living by singing songs, became the man 
to translate the Bible in German, who as 
such "fathered", the German language. 

In his many agonies, he would call upon 
music ... as "the art of the prophets, 
the only art that can calm the agitations 
of the soul". 

The Holy Roman Empire, dated from 
Charles the Great, King of The Franks in 
the eight century. In Luther's day 
Charles V reigned (1500-1558). 



THE HAPSBURG DYNASTY: 

It gained the title of "Holy Roman 
Emperor" at the coronation of Frederick 
III in 1452. His son Maximilian, by his 
own and his children's marriages, added 
Spain, parts of America, Naples, Sicily, 
several French provinces and the Nether- 
lands to the Hapsburg territories in 
Aus t r ia . 

His grandson, Charles V, ruled over 
greater lands than any other European 
Monarch. He never forgave himself for 
letting Luther escape from his power at 
the Diet of Worms in 1521. 



In 1555, at the peace of Augsburg, he 
was forced to acknowledge a permanently- 
established protestantism over a large 
part of Germany. 

Charles V, that very next year, re- 
tired, broken in spirit, to a monastery. 
He bequeathed his heritage to the Austr- 
ian and Spanish branches of the family 
and so weakened the Hapsburg Power. 

The treaty of Augsburg permitted the 
Rulers of a given State, to dictate his 
her religion on the population. Thus» 



or 

the wretched masses were 
conform to the Ruler's "Taste". 



forced to 



Thus the seeds of the great "Thirty 
Year War" were sown. 

Historians have been unable to even 
begin to paint the horrors of this war 
which started in 1618. It afflicted the 
States bound by the Rhine, the Danube, 
the Elbe and the North Sea. It devastated 
unlike an earthquake, a cyclone or even a 
plague. Tens of millions of people 
perished as hordes of Swedish, Spanish, 
French, Austrians and other "volunteer" 
soldiers raped, pillaged and plundered to 
their heart's content. 

Two-thirds of the population of Dresden 
perished, the citizens of Wurtenburg were 
reduced from 400,000 to 40,000 ... 
Wiesbaden lost all its houses and the few 
survivors lived like hermits among the 
wild animals in the ruins. 



Sweden had become a formidable imperial 
power ... and was ruled by Gustavus II 
(Adolphus) ... a competent monarch whose 



tact and wisdom had won him the respect 
and trust of his nobles. 

Gustav II turned his attention to the 
protestant cause in Germany. On September 
17» 1631, he defeated the imperial 
commander Tilly at Breitenfeld, he then 
conquered Munich and came close to the 
Imperial City of Vienna. 

Wallenstein, the new Imperial Commander 
(Tilly had died on the battlefield), 
drove Gustav out of Bavaria ••• but 
Gustavus II confronted him in battle at 
Lutzen on November 16, 1631. Here, Gustav 
was mortally wounded. 

The blade of his sword is reputed to 
have been found on his body. It was 
acquired by Thomas Howard, eighth duke of 
Norfolk and Grand Master of the Grand 
Lodge of England 1730-1731. He presented 
it to this Grand Lodge ... and today, it 
forms the blade of the Grand-Lodge's 
sword-of-state . 

The French Valois Kings, while combat- 
ting the Huguenots at Home and using the 
Jesuits to spearhead a great Catholic 
revival in France ... nevertheless ... 
hated the Hapsburgs, so much, that they 
supported the German protestants against 
the Hapsburg Emperor. 

Finally in 1648, the "Peace" of West- 
phalia assured the demolition of even 
such concept as "a united Germany". 

France encouraged the sovereignty of 
every petty princedom of which there 
were about three hundred. 



10 



For example, the district of Bavaria 
from which hailed a Leopold Mozart 
harbored ... 97 sovereigns ... 4 ecclesi- 
astical princes, 14 secular princes, 25 
Lords of Manor, 30 Imperial Towns and 23 
prelates . 

Each of these endeavoured to climb up 
the ladder, over the backs of tolls, 
taxes and other extortions from the 
miserable population. 

To quote Adrien Fauchier ..." Gratitude 
towards music loving princes, ought to be 
tempered by the knowledge of human 
misery, inflicted in pursuit of their 
admired tastes, as well as their disrepu- 
table pleasures." 

For a century, Germany was to remain in 
the stillness of exhaustion. 

The Holy Roman Empire was virtually 
destroyed, although the 'Electors' 
continued to carry their titles ... and 
would continue to exercise their 'right' 
to elect the Emperor. 

As a forecast of further terrors to 
come, Vienna in 1679, was struck by the 
plague which claimed about 100,000 
victims. The Turks, who fortunately had 
been quiescent for decades, now saw in 
this torn and exhausted Continent of 
Europe, the chance for victory ... backed 
by 'allies', including France, who 
preferred Turkish rule over the hated 
Hapsburgs, a huge army of over 300,000 
troops rolled in 1683 towards the gates 
of Vi enna • 



11 



The defending forces were led by the 

Emperor Leopold I - Jan Sobieski - the 

giant and fearless king of Poland - and 
the Duke of Lorraine. 

After two hair-raising months, the 
defending troops caught the Turks in a 
pincer movement between themselves and 
troops streaming out of the city and 
mainly thanks to the magnificently 
armoured Polish cavalry, the Turks were 
routed and soundly defeated. 

Two famous spoils of war were a great 
gold-crescent which was placed on the 
spire of St. Stephen's Cathedral and - so 
the legend goes - a sack of Strang seeds 
yielding the first coffee ever to be 
drunk in Europe. It was in that year that 
the Viennese coffee houses opened for 
bus ine s s . 



The First Royal Freemason 

The Empress Maria Theresa, was the 
granddaughter of the Emperor Leopold I. 

She ruled as Archduchess of Austria and 
Queen of Hungary and Bohemia from 1740 to 
1780. 

She married her cousin Francis of 
Lorraine, who was elected Holy Roman 
Emperor in 1745. 

He was initiated through the good 
sponsorship of the English ambassador 
Lord Chesterfield by Rev. John Theophilus 
Desaguliers, the father of modern specul- 
ative Freemasonry, the third Grand Master 
after the great revival. 



12 



The place of this initiation was the 
Hague, Holland, where he presided as 
Worshipful Master over a lodge organized 
by special dispensation, to initiate and 
pass the Duke of Lorraine. The year was 
1731. That same year, the Duke was raised 
to the sublime degree in the 'Maids Head' 
Lodge in Norwich, England. 

One year after this event ... in 1732 
... on the 31st of March, Frank Joseph 
Hydn was born, at Rohrau, Lower Austria, 
in a corner of the Hapsburg empire, with 
a population of mixed ancestry ... 
Austrian, Hungarian, Moravian, Slovak and 
Croation. Attempts have been made to show 
him a Czech, a Croat, a Hungarian or a 
Gypsy . 

E.F. Schmid in 1934 marshalled suffici- 
ent documentary evidence to make a 
decisive case for Haydn to have been born 
of 'pure German' stock. 

Some of his ancestors may have been of 
Slav descent and the merry tunes evident 
in much of his music are, it is claimed, 
those of Croation peasants ... It is 
hardly too much to say that Haydn stood 
to the folk music of Croatia, as Robbie 
Burns stood to the peasant songs of 
Scot land . 

Haydn's father had twelve children, 
half of which survived to adulthood and 
three of which, Joseph, Michael and Johan 
Evangelist became musicians. Michael was 
to become a good friend of Mozart as was 
Joseph Haydn himself. 



13 



At the age of eight, Joseph became a 
choir boy at St. Stephens Cathedral in 
Vienna where Karl George Reutter was 
Kapellmeister or musical director. 
Reutter being naturally ambitious and the 
composer of a large quantity of church 
music, had little time left to concen- 
trate on the welfare and instructions of 
the choristers in his charge ... as a 
result, the singers were poorly fed and 
not well educated ... Haydn always looked 
forward to be invited as a member of 
functions of the choir outside, when a 
decent meal might be available. 

Haydn himself said ... He never had a 
proper teacher ... I started with the 
practical side, first in singing, then in 
playing instruments and later in composi- 
tion. I listened more than I studied. I 
listened a t t en t a t i v e 1 y and tried to turn 
to good account what most impressed me. 
In this way, my knowledge and ability 
were developed. I heard the finest music 
in all forms that was to be heard in my 
time, and of that there was much in 
Vi enna . 

At age 17, his voice broke and his 
departure from the choir school came 
suddenly ... his brother Michael took 
over Joseph's solo parts ... and Joseph 
Haydn, always a prankster, foolishly cut 
off the pigtail of a fellow chorister. 

When Reuter threatened to cane him, 

Haydn said he would rather leave the 

choir than suffer this indignity ... 

Reuter promptly expelled him (only after 

he had caned him). 



14 



And so on a cold November morning in 

1749, 17 year Haydn found himself without 

money or lodgings and totally unprepared 

to earn a living, on the streets of 
Vi enna • 

Later, he was to say ... "What I am, is 
all the result of the direst need". 

Gradually, he became known in the 
musical circles of Vienna and as he said 
... "but I had to eke out a wretched 
existence for eight years". In 1758, 
Haydn obtained his first musical post, as 
director of the orchestra of Count 
Ferdinand Maximilian von Morzin ... at a 
yearly salary of 200 florins, not enough 
but at least some security ... At the 
Morzin summer residence, he performed his 
first Symphony and met Prince Anton 
Esterhazy who was to become an important 
person in his life. 

At this time, he also fell in love with 
a pupil, Therese Keller, the younger 
daughter of a Viennese hairdresser ••• 
However, Therese opted to become a nun 
and entered St. Nicholas convent. 

In 1760, Haydn married her sister Maria 
Ann in St. Stephen's on November 26. 
Unlike Mozart, however, who married the 
sister of his first love, and was happy, 
Haydn soon found her incompatible, ill- 
natured, totally indifferent to music and 
quite incapable of providing either a 
home or children. 

Early in 1761, Count Morzin found 
himself in financial difficulties and had 
to disband his orchestra. 



15 



Prince Paul Esterhazy heard that Haydn 
was unemployed and at once offered him 
the appointment of assistant conductor of 
his orchestra at" Eisenstadt", his palace 
40 kilometers south of Vienna. 



Since the Hungarian War of Independence 
(1711), the Austrian Court deliberately 
strengthened the position of the Hungar- 
ian Aristocracy so as to keep them loyal 
to the Emp ire. 

With the coming of Maria Therese to the 
throne of Austria, music at the Viennese 
court began to wane. Fewer court music- 
ians were employed and less and less 
imperial encouragement was given. The 
nobility took over the role of encourag- 
ing and supporting musicians. 

The foremost family in Hungary in the 
18th century was the House of Esterhazy 
of Galanta. Its beginning is traced to 
Nicholas (born 1583) and expelled from 
his protestant family for espousing the 
Catholic faith. Nicholas twice married 
young rich widows and thereby amassed a 
fortune. Through various political and 
religious intrigues, he came in possess- 
ion of numerous estates including that of 
Eisenstadt. Paul Anton Esterhazy inheri- 
ted the title Palatine at age 10. When 
Haydn entered the services of the Eisens- 
tadt household, the orchestra, choir and 
company of actors were established 
f eatur es . 

The contract to which Haydn put his 
signature still exists. It may see 
severly restricted by today's standard 
butnormaltoa 



servant 



1 n 



H 



seem 
s 
V d n ' s 



position. It safeguarded the position of 

16 



the aged Werner. It gave Haydn sole 
control of the orchestra, and promised 
the position of Kapellmeister upon 
Werner's retirement. He was to conduct 
himself soberly and set an example for 
other musicians who were placed in his 
charge • 

All compositions he wrote were to be 
for the exclusive use of the prince. A 
clause forbidding writing or copying of 
Haydn's music outside of Eisenstadt was 
either annulled or ignored later. His 
annual salary was 400 florins. This 
contract was for three years. 

For this music-loving Prince, Haydn, 
who was rightly called the father of the 
symphony, wrote three symphonies: Le 
Matin (the morning), Le Midi (the after- 
noon) and Le Soir (the evening). The 
Prince - Paul Esterhazy - had suggested 
these titles himself. He died less than a 
year after Haydn's appointment on March 
18, 1762. 

Prince Nicholas (Miklos) "The Magnific- 
ent", his brother and successor delighted 
in extravagant entertainment. He played a 
now obsolete instrument the 'viola di 
bordone' baryton. Haydn was virtually 
forced to compose music for this diffi- 
cult to handle instrument. He composed 
between 1762 and 1775 about 160 diverti- 
menti for baryton, viola and cello of 
which 126 have survived. He also learned 
to play the s i x- gu t - s t r i nged instrument 
only to incur the jealousy of his patron. 
Here, he wrote his first operas. Haydn's 
father died in 1763 and in 1765, his 
brother Johan Evangelist joined the 
company of singers as a tenor. His 



17 



brother M i c hae 1 -Ke 1 1 y had been appointed 
musical director to Archbishop Sigismund 
of Salzburg in 1762. He remained in 
Salzburg for the rest of his life, 
becoming a close friend of the Mozart 
f ami 1 y . 

Prince Nicholas visited Paris in 1764 
and became so enchanted with the palace 
and gardens of Versailles that he resol- 
ved to establish his very own. 

The place he selected was a waterlogged 
forest at Sutter besides Lake Beusidler, 
which often flooded. Four years later, 
after draining and erecting dams, the 
Castle of Esterhazy was ready for occu- 
panc y . 



The Paris Symphonies 

By 1775, Haydn was internationally 
known and on March 27, 1781, Haydn 
advised his Viennese publisher Artaria 
that "A Monsieur Le Gros, director of Les 
Concerts Spirituels, had made him compli- 
mentary remarks about his 'Stabat Mater' 
... and asked permission to engrave this. 
Furthermore, they had made him an 'advan- 
tageous' offer to 'engrave' all future 
works " . 

The 'Concerts Spirituels' was founded 
in Paris in 1725, but progressive works 
were given at the 'Concerts des Amateurs' 
which in 1780 became 'Concert de la loge 
Olympique', because of the venue or 
location was that of a masonic lodge. 

This Concert de la loge Olympique, 
invited Haydn to write six symphonies and 



18 



thus were the famous six Paris Symphonies 
born (// 82-87). They were nicknamed *The 
Bear» The Hen and La Reine' (as it was 
the favorite of Marie Antoinette). 

Compte d'Ogny, a well known mason and 
one of its directors, requested three 
more symphonies, which Haydn completed in 
1788. The composer received twenty-five 
Louis d'or for each of these symphonies, 
which, according to Count d'Ogny's 
report, appeared colossal to him. 

We should not fail to refer to a 
prevailing practice in Paris of initiat- 
ing musicians for lodge-inspired funct- 
ions. After their initiation in the first 
degree, no further obligations were 
r equ i red . 

Some masonic scholars have interpreted 
this "association" between Haydn, Count 
d'Ogny and La Loge Olmpique as proof of 
Haydn's masonic involvement. To the 
writer, it appears merely a fortunate and 
lucrative business connection. 

Haydn's ' i ndu s t r i ou sne s s ' is exempli- 
fied by the last series of Paris symphon- 
ies. Orchestral parts of the same works 
were in the following year sold by the 
composer to the Bavarian Prince Kraf f t 
Ernst of O t t i ngen - Wa 1 1 e r s t e i n . In July, 
1791, Haydn would dedicate the same 
symphonies - not yet known in London - to 
Oxford University on his elevation as 
Doctor of Music and thus they became 
known as the 'Oxford Symphonies' . 

At last in 1784, Sc h 1 o s s - E s t e r ha z y was 
completed. The cost - a mere eleven 
million florins or guilders, or nearly 



19 



two million pound sterling or four 
million dollars. 

Yes, Haydn's patron Prince Nicholas of 
Esterhazy was indeed extravagantly 
'Magnificent'. He also happened to be 
related to the W. Master of the Masonic 
Lodge ' Zur gekronten Hoffnung' or Crowned 
Hope, which was Mozart's lodge. 

In December of that year, Joseph Haydn 
sent the following letter to the Master 
of Ceremonies of a somewhat more fashion- 
able lodge 'Zur Waehren Eintracht' or 
True Unity. 

"Nobly born» Most highly respected Herr 
Hoff Secretaire, 

The highly advantageous inpression 
which Freenasonry has nade on ne has long 
awakened in ny breast the sincerest wish 
to becoae a Member of the Order » with its 
humanitarian and wise principles. I turn 
to you. Sir, with the most urgent request 
that you have the great kindness to 
intervene on my behalf with the Lodge of 
the Order, in order to implement this 
petition, as indicated above. I have the 
honour to remain, with profound esteem. 

Your obedient servant, 

Josephus Haydn 

CapellMesiter to Prince Esterhazy 

Vienna the 29th of the Christmas Month 
1784." 

As a 17-year old boy, Mozart had first 
heard music of the great Haydn in Vienna, 
but it was not unti 1781 that the two of 



20 



them probably met. It appears that 
between the young man of 25, and the 50- 
year old, father of the symphony, a rare 
and lasting friendship grew. 

This was the more remarkable as, apart 
from the generation gap, their characters 
were almost opposite. Mozart was gener- 
ally careless in all matters other than 
music (and punctuality in writing to Papa 
Leopold). He was the brilliant key board 
virtuoso who wrote music anywhere at 
astounding speed, virtually, without 
corr ec t ions . 

Haydn was no soloist, by his own 
admission, and was a comparatively slow 
worker. He was, however, a meticulous and 
efficient administrator both of himself 
and of others entrusted in his care. This 
had earned him the nickname 'Papa Haydn' 
at Esterhazy ... as he took fatherly care 
of the musicians in his charge. 

Mozart too was to call him 'Papa*. 

Moreover, Mozart liked indoor games 
like billiards, whereas Haydn had a 
Croatian love of what is called 'sport' 
and the proverbial saying on the princely 
estate was "as good a shot and fisherman 
as Haydn". 

Talking about billiards, Mozart used to 
play it, after a doctor had advised him 
to take some exercise (he even bought a 
horse at that time). His favorite player 
may have been an Irishman by the name of 
Michael Kelly, a singer and actor at the 
'Italian Opera'. He frequently visited 
the Mozarts. In his reminiscences, we get 
an excellent description of Mozart. 



21 



Description of Mozart 

"He was a remarkably small man ... very 
thin ... and pale ... with a profusion of 
fine hair, of which he was rather vain 
... he always received me with kindness 
and hospitality ... he was remarkably 
fond of punch, taking copious draughts 
thereof ... he was fond of billiards ... 
and I always came off second best ... he 
was kindhearted and ready to oblige ... 
but, so very particular when he played 
... if the slightest noise was made, he 
instantly left off ...". 

It is suggested that Mozart and Haydn 
discussed Masonry before Haydn*s written 
request for admission ... this may well 
be so, who knows? Haydn did join a 
different lodge and Mozart was not his 
s ponsor . 

But Mozart, in his own inimitable way, 
was to show Haydn and history just how 
highly he thought of Haydn. 

He dedicated to Haydn six important 
quartets along with a stylized, respect- 
ful dedication, in which, however, he 
also demanded respect and recognition. 
The peculiar aspect of these quartets is 
that Mozart, contrary to his normal way 
of 'instant' composing, had laboured over 
this for a lengthy period and moreover, 
we know, made many alterations as he 
pondered this endeavour. 

He presented them to Papa Haydn comme 
'II frutto di una lunga e laboriosa 
fattica* ... as 'the fruit of something 



22 



over which he had laboured hard and 
long • . 

Leopold (Papa) Mozart, now old and 
lonely, visited his famous son. He was 
far from impressed with Constance's poor 
housekeeping, but thoroughly enjoyed the 
high standard of the orchestra which 
Mozart conducted and last but not least 
the impressive number of nobility pre- 
sent. ••• Leopold knew the ropes ... 
freelance meant - starvation ... politics 
added to nobility meant - security. Three 
months later. Father Leopold was 
become an entered apprentice mason. 



t o 



When Mozart introduced his father to 
Haydn, *Papa* said to Leopold "I, as an 
honest man, tell you before God that your 
son is the greatest composer I know in 
person or by name. He has taste and 
moreover the most thorough knowledge of 
compos it ion . " 

Leopold then realized that his sacrifi- 
ces and concerns had not been in vain, 
that Mozart indeed fulfilled the destiny 
envisioned by Leopold ... was indeed a 
genius • 



Late in 1785, Mozart wrote his beauti- 
ful funeral music (K.477) for a lodge of 
sorrows of two distinguished brethren, 
including Johann Count Esterhazy. Haydn, 
at that time, was quite a celebrity and 
one might expect him to have been present 
at such an occasion, for a late relative 
of his patron. No record of his presence 
has come to us . 

As a matter of fact, no record exists 
to show that Brother Haydn ever set foot 

23 



in a lodge after his initiation on 
February 11 in the lodge 'Zur Wahren 
Eintracht*. Some say Haydn took his demit 
in 1787. 

Between 1785 and 1790, there appears to 
have been no personal contact between 
Mozart and Haydn. 

The next time we see Mozart and Haydn 
together, is in the company of Puchberg 
in early 1790, at the final rehearsals of 
Cosi Fan Tutte. 

By that time, the French Revolution was 
six months in earnest progress, after the 
fall of the Bastille in 1789 ... and 
within 18 months, on June 20, 1791, the 
Garde Nationale was to arrest King Louis 
XVI and the 'Austrian women' Marie 
Antoinette on their attempted flight from 
France to Varennes. 

A lot was to happen to Mozart and Haydn 
in those 18 months. 

On February 20, shortly after the 
Premiere of Cosi Fan Tutti, the Emperor 
Joseph II, died and with him the last 
influential member of the Imperial Court, 
sympathetic to Mozart. 

Ludwig van Beethoven, then 19 years 
old, composed an impressive cantata 'on 
the death of the Emperor' whose social 
and political ideas, known as the 'En- 
lightenment' were readily welcomed in 
Bonn, where Beethoven was born. 

In May of that year, Constanze was on 
one of her frequent visits to the mineral 
baths for the cure ... and in the mean- 



24 



time, another resident of Bonn, born in 
the same house as Beethoven, visited 
Vienna . 



His name was John Peter Salomon who 
played the violin creditably; he was a 
composer and had settled in London. 
Salomon had heard of the death of Haydn's 
employer, Nicholas Count Esterhazy in 
September and he hastened to Haydn, who 
was now free, to make him an offer he 
could not refuse. 

Haydn bid a tearful farewell to his 
friend Mozart and set out for London with 
Salomon, who was a member of the famous 
Pilgrim Lodge. On the way, they passed by 
Bonn, where Haydn first met Beethoven. 

In London, Haydn became the toast of 
the city. He was invited to the Royal 
Court, presented to her Majesty the Queen 
and after performing in early March, a 
newly created symphony //102 in B flat, 
was fortunate that the massive chandelier 
fell from the ceiling just after the 
audience had left. This symphony became 
known as The Miracle Symphony. 

In July, the University of Oxford 
proudly adorned Haydn's almost 60-year 
old, somewhat dumpy figure, with the 
wh i t e - f i gu r e d silk and c he r r y -co 1 our ed 
satin of a Doctor of Music. 

In the same month, Constanze Mozart 
gave birth to her sixth child Franz Xaver 
Wolfgang, who was to survive his father 
by 5 3 years • 

Whereas in that year, Haydn basked in 



25 



adulation, Mozart's 
steadily downhill. 



popularity went 



Pertinent to our story is a special 
visitor to the Mozart House, a 16-year 
old boy, short, stocky and dark, by the 
name of Ludwig van Beethoven. 

He came to study under the great 
master, but unfortunately had to leave 
after only two weeks, due to the mortal 
illness of his mother. Legend has it that 
Wolfgang prophesied that "This young man 
would certainly make a noise in this 
world. " 



1791 was to be the 
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 



fatal year for 



It proved the culmination of financial 
difficulties, health problems, marital 
upheavals and circumstances which for 
centuries would keep writers, filmmakers 
and indulgers in plain gossip buzzing ••• 
and, as an everlasting credit to his 
genius, it proved a year of sublime 
outpouring of sometimes gracious, superb, 
out-of-this-earth and down-to-earth 
music, without a sign of the melancholic, 
angry notes that a Beethoven would 
produce under similar pressure. 

As to Mozart's financial difficulties ... 



There is little evidence of any until 
the summer of 1788 when the first letter 
to Brother Michael Puchberg was sent. It 
starts with an admission that Mozart owes 
Puchberg 8 ducats (27 guilders). 

That summer, Mozart wrote five letters 
to his friend and brother asking for a 

26 



one-to-two thousand guilder loan, so that 
he (Mozart) "could keep his affairs in 
order ... meet necessary expenses as they 
occur ... and can work with a mind free 
and with a lighter heart." 

The first letter brought Mozart 100 
guilders ... the second letter, in which 
Mozart advised his friend that "he had 
moved again and this time to cheaper 
rooms and more pleasant ... with a 
garden", brought 200 guilders. In the 
other letters, he implores Puchberg, "in 
the name of friendship", to advance money 
on two pawntickets, ... "If you, my most 
worthy brother, do not help me in this 
predicament, I shall lose my honour and 
my credit, which of all things I wish to 
preserve . " 

Five letters ... 300 guilders ... total 
debt to Puchberg, 327 guilders. Was 
Mozart cheap? In a P.S., to his second 
letter, Mozart writes, "When are we 
having a little musical party at your 
home again? I have composed a new trio". 

A new trio indeed! 

That summer, in his new and cheaper 
'surroundings' , Mozart composed three of 
his magnificent symphonies ... The one in 
'E' minor (the same key he uses in the 
Magic Flute ... and his masonic works) 
consisted of a trio ... dedicated to none 
other than his friend and brother Michael 
Puchberg . 

Of the other two, the 'Jupiter Sym- 
phony' is best known. 



27 



In the beginning of 1789, he was again 
to write Puchberg ... "Great God! I would 
not wish my worst enemy to be in my 
position ... and if you forsake me, both 
my unfortunate and blameless self, and my 
poor sick wife and child, are altogether 
lost ... I am composing six easy clavier 
sonatas for Princess Priederike and six 
quartets for the King ••• two dedications 
will bring me in, something ... lend me 
another 500 guilders ... *'. The next 
letter was sent 5 days later; "I fear you 
are angry with me ... if you can and will 
entirely relieve ne (referring again to 
one large loan) I shall return thanks to 
you . . . as my saviour . . . even beyond the 
grave ... for you will have enabled me to 
further enjoy happiness on this earth". 

P.S. "My wife was wretched ill again 
yesterday, leeches were applied and she 
is, thank God, somewhat better ... I am 
indeed most unhappy and am forever 
hovering between hope and fear!" Puchberg 
noted on the letter "answered the same 
day and sent 150 guilders". 

Yes, Mozart did return thanks from 
beyond the grave ... by immortalizing 
Puchberg for what he did and did not do. 
Puchberg never claimed the 650 odd 
guilders on Mozart's estate and Puchberg 
died ... a poor man. 

Part of Mozart's financial problems was 
the ill-health of his wife Constanze, who 
on the advise of her doctor, spent time 
at the mineral bath's place Baden near 
Vi enna . 

In a letter dated April 16, 1789, 
Mozart admonishes her ... "I beg you, in 



28 



your conduct, not only to be careful of 
your honour and mine, but also to con- 
sider appearances*'. 

On June 11, he was to write ... "Adieu 

my love! I am lunching today with Puch- 

berg. I kiss you a thousand times and 

say, with you, in thought ... 'Death and 

Despair'were his reward! ... Ever your 
loving husband." 

In the period J u 1 y - O c t o b e r , he wrote 
her eleven letters ... seven in July and 
four in October. In September, Constanze 
and Sussmayer were with him, in Prague, 
at the performance of II Clemenza di 
Tito. 

Mozart's last known letter is again to 
his dear little wife, S t anz i -Mar i n i , as 
he used to call her in earlier letters. 
This letter is dated October 14 and ends 
with ... "that you have not written me 
for two days is really unforgivable ... I 
hope that I shall certainly have a letter 
from you today and that tomorrow I shall 
talk to you and embrace you with all my 
heart. Farewell Ever Your ... Mozart. I 
kiss Sophie a thousand times. Do what you 
like with N.N. Adieu." 

Also, in that last and fatal year 1791, 
Mozart acquired a few new pupils. 

A. Franz Xa v e r Sussmayer (1766-1803), 
who, then twenty-five, spent a good deal 
of time both studying with Mozart and 
attending to Constanze, particularly 
during her 'lonely' stay in Baden taking 
the cure. From Mozart's letters, it is 
clear that he knew she was "easy to 
comply with" ... and when on July 26, 



29 



Constanze gave birth to her sixth c h i 1 d » 
it was baptized Franz X a v e r Wol fgang 
Mozart » ... giving some speculation. 

Another 'pupil' was Magdalena Hofdemel, 
who was married to Franz Hofdemel, 
private secretary to Count Seilern and 
later ' J u s t i z -kan z 1 i s t ' , an appointment 
in the Vienna Law Courts. 

In March 1789, Mozart had written to 
Franz Hofdemel, asking for a favour to 
lend Mozart 100 gulden until the 20th of 
the next month ... and he ends the letter 
... "Well, we shall soon be able to call 
one another by a more delightful name, 
for your novitiate is very nearly at an 
end." Hofdemel was about to join the 
freemasons order and become "a brother". 
Hofdemel acceded to Mozart's request. 

Days after Mozart's death, Hofdemel, in 
a fit of jealousy, attempted to kill 
Magdalena, who was pregnant, with a 
razor, and then slit his own throat ... 
this suicide, though hushed up, gave rise 
to the rumour that Magdalena had been 
Mozart's mistress ... and years later, 
Beethoven would still refuse to recognize 
her . . . The child was christened Johann 
von Nepomuk Alexander Franz, the names of 
the Godfather, Johann von Nepomuk Alex- 
ander Fidel Holderer ... and Franz after 
his father ... But, somehow writers will 
say he was named after Johann (Mozart's 
first name) and his late Father Franz. 

Sussmayer, against the wish of Con- 
stanze, was to complete Mozart's requiem, 
as requested by Wolfgang ... Constanze 
was to live with another man for ten 



30 



years» before becoming Mrs. Constanze 
Mozart-Nissen. 

The letters sent by Leopold to his son, 
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, written since 
her marriage to him, were burnt by 
Constanze; and it took her over seventeen 
years to attempt to visit the grave of 
her husband. 

Let us return to London, where in that 
summer of 1791, Haydn became Dr. Haydn. 

As usual he had left his wife, 'Frau 
Maria-Anna' at home. Haydn once remarked 
"My wife was unable to bear children and 
for this reason, I was less indifferent 
toward the attractions of other women ... 
and ... "she does not care a straw 
whether her husband is an artist or a 
cobbler." 

With great pride in his Doctor's 
degree, he wrote Marianne von Genzinger, 
"I only wished my Viennese friends could 
have seen me . " 

Haydn relished in the cosmopolitan 
atmosphere of London, accentuated by 
scores of r-fugees from the terror of the 
French Revolution, and in the 'benefit 
concerts' given on his behalf, which 
netted him hundreds of pounds ... A new 
pupil was to be his ... Rebecca Schroe- 
ter, the widow of the well-known pianist 
and composer J.S. Schroeter. 

At the same time he continued his 
affectionate correspondence with Lugia 
Polzelli, who he had befriended in 1779, 
who after the death of her husband had 
moved to Italy and was anxious to come to 



31 



London. Instead, he sent her money and 
declared himself willing to have her son 
Pietro join him in London. 

His wife obviously had gotten wind of 
Haydn's recent successes with the fair 
sex and reprimanded him- Haydn wrote 
Luigia "My wife, that infernal beast, 
wrote me so many things that I was forced 
to answer that I was never coming back. 
To this she paid attention." 

Haydn too had to pay attention ... to 
his employer the new Prince Anton 
Esterhazy, as well as to a new Emperor, 
Joseph I I . 

Upon the death of Joseph I in 1790, 
Masonry had lost its last friend at the 
Vienna Court. Leopold II was to reign 
only two years. He had, it is true, 
approved a new lodge, of rosecrucian 
nature, *Love and Truth', and an old 
lodge, 'St. Joseph', was revived, but in 
his last year, he advised all masonic 
lodges to halt activities. 

We should not be surprised ... Leo- 
pold's sister Ma r i e - An t o i n e t t e and her 
husband King Louis XVI were arrested, by 
the Garde Nationale at Varennes, for 
trying to escape France. Some of the real 
hotheads of the revolution were free- 
masons, such as a Robespierre and Danton. 
Leopold made a general appeal to all 
sovereigns in Europe to take common 
measures 'in view of events* which 
threatened 'the honour' of all sover- 
e igns . 

Joseph II was truly paranoid of secret 
societies. The false allegations of a 



32 



masonic conspiracy, which led to the 
French Revolution, were circulated at the 
Court of Vienna by enemies of the 
fraternity. The Monarch believed it 
blindly. From the day of his coronation, 
he lived in fear of secret societies, 
particularly freemasons. 

Immediately after the death of his 
father, he ransacked all chests and 
tables in search of insidious writings 
relating to masonry and similar things. 
He locked it all up in huge port-folios. 

Haydn enjoyed His Coronation on his 
return from London. His new employer, 
Anton of Esterhazy, remarked, "Oh Haydn, 
you could have saved me forty thousand 
florins." 

On July 24, 1792, Dr. Haydn arrived in 
Vienna, in one of the princely carriages. 
Vienna could not care less ... no great 
reception ... no elaborate newspaper 
articles ... nothing. 



Haydn bought a house 



in a quiet and 
secluded location, for his wife to use as 
a residence. He then turned his attention 
to Marianne von Genzinger 'for comfort'. 



On January 27, 1793, a catastrophe 
shook Haydn's existence. Marianne died at 
age 43, leaving 5 children. 

Something never to be recaptured left 
him ... a certain sarcasm set in and a 
bitterness. It would be evident on his 
second trip to London. 

His two pupils were Pietro Polzelli and 
Ludwig van Beethoven. Beethoven took 



33 



lessons at a nominal rate of eight 
groschen per hour. 

They met frequently and Beethoven's 
memo book reads "chocolate twenty-two-x 
( kr euz e r - f ar t h ing 8 ) for Haydn and myself 
and coffee six-x (for Haydn and myself)." 

We have seen Beethoven in 1787 spending 
two weeks with Mozart. It is clear that 
he considered Haydn as second best. His 
friend and supporter. Count Waldstein, 
wrote in Beethoven's album of October 29, 
1792, the following farewell as Beethoven 
left his birthplace Bonn: 

Dear Beethoven, 

You are travelling to Vienna to fulfill 
a 1 o ng - c h e r i 8 hed wi8h. The protecting 
genius of Mozart is still weeping and 
bewailing the death of her favorite. With 
the inexhaustible Haydn, she has found 
refuge, but no occupation. She is now 
waiting to associate herself with soneone 
else. Labour assiduously and receive 
Mozart's spirit from the hands of Haydn. 

Beethoven did not quite trust Haydn. 
During his studies in counterpoint, Haydn 
proved careless in correcting his pupil's 
errors; on the other hand, Haydn fought 
for his pupil's wages from the Elector in 
Bonn, by submitting works, composed in 
Vienna, as evidence. Alas, some of these 
works were already made by Beethoven 
before his departure ... leaving Haydn 
look ing silly. 

Beethoven's arrogance was hard to bear. 
Haydn called him jokingly 'The Great 



34 



Mongul' ... political differences were, 
if possible, more pronounced. 

Haydn, a loyal subject of the Austrian 
Monarch, was filled with horror at the 
happenings in Paris. Napoleon to him was 
an archeneny; for his downfall, he 
fervently prayed. 

Beethoven rather admired 'the little- 
general* and planned to dedicate his 
third symphony to his hero, * The Eroica'. 

Thus, Beethoven found a new teacher, 
Johann Schenk. 

Haydn started to plan his second trip 
to London and left Vienna on January 19, 
1794, in the company of Baron van 
Swieten, director of the Vienna court 
library, an ardent music lover and a 
mason . 

Beethoven, at that time, was almost 24. 
For the past seven years. Freemasonry had 
been in a state of increasing disarray, 
yet we are left to believe that Beethoven 
joined the craft ... ? 



We should, at this point, introduce to 
you Brother Roger Cotte, Doctor in 
Musicology, a connoisseur of the French 
18th century musical period. 



Roger Cotte is the conductor of 'Groupe 
des instruments anciens de Paris' and 
research-assistant to Professor J. 
Chailley of the Sorbonne. He produced a 
monumental biography on Haydn. 

On the jacket of one of his recordings 
*Mu8iques Rituelles Maconiques du XVIIIe 



35 



Siecle', you will find Ludwig van 
Beethoven credited with: Marche maconn- 
ique and Operlied. 

Enclosed is a brief history, prefixed 
by a letter from the 'Grande Loge de 
France' and we quote: 

"Beethoven's appurtenances to Freemasonry 
has never been ascertained, yet facts 
seem to confirm this supposition. Many of 
his melodies have been 'a posteriori' 
used with his consent with masonic texts 
by one of his best friends, Wegeler, who 
was a well-known Freemason. 

Witnesses confirm that meeting with 
Freemasons, Beethoven has exchanged with 
them secret signs known only to by the 
initiated. As an exergue to his adagio of 
the seventh quatuor, he has also written 
a typically masonic sentence which is 
vivid proof of his advanced knowledge of 
Freemasonry. 

The violinist, Karl Holz, who has been an 
intimate friend of Beethoven, told the 
musicograph. Otto Jahn, that Beethoven 
was a Freemason but . . . not very active 
in the last years of his life. 

The march, in si-bemol, is evidently a 
work with a free masonic purpose. It has 
all the characteristics of ceremonial 
marches played for the entry and exit of 
dignitaries during solemn lodge gather- 
ings. 

They are of an average length, convenient 
only, for the short walks to or from the 
Worshipful Master's stage, to the 
temple's doors. 

36 



Characterized by an optimistic note, they 
must be played by a typical masonic band 
of two clarinets, two horns and a 
bassoon. They are dated 1792, the period 
when Beethoven was most active in 
Freemasonry. It must finally be said that 
these marches are too modest to have a 
military destination and could be only 
performed during Freemason ceremonies. 

The 'Operlied* (1795?) for pianoforte and 
singing voice is tightly linked with 
Freemasonry of antique inspiration of the 
very type found in the surroundings of 
Mozart (Re. Dir Seele des Weltalls, 
cantata). The poetic text of Matthison 
speaks of sacrifices performed by the 
ancients as well as of the four basic 
elements (These play an important role in 
the initiation to the first degree in 
Freemasonry) and of the fight for 
freedom. M. Curzon calls it "a wide and 
beautiful page, sometimes reminding us of 
the hymns sung by the choir of priests of 
the Goddess Isis in the Zauberf lote. " 
Wegeler has given to this tune a more 
ceremonious masonic text." End of quote. 

In my research, I have found no other 
'evidence* of Beethoven joining our 
craft . 

Back in London, the reporter of the 
'Oracle* greeted Haydn with the following 
comment : 

"We must of necessity be brief. And, 
after all, it may be best when de chef- 
d*oevre of the Great Haydn is the 
subject. Come then expressive silence, 
muse his praise." 

37 



Another paper lauds this "goodhearted, 
candid, honest man, esteemed and beloved 
by all." 

This love and esteem were also felt by 
members of his orchestra who enjoyed his 
sense of humour and friendly ways. 

Benefit concerts were well known to 
Haydn and his impresario Salomon, who 
both derived goodly sums from it. 

Brother Webb wrote an excellent article 
in AQC volume 94 on Joseph Haydn Free- 
mason and Musician. From this we quote: 

"Published in the Morning Chronicle of 30 
March 1795 is the following: 

FREE MASON'S SCHOOL 

Under the Patronage of his Royal Highness 

the Prince of Wales. 

In aid of the Fund for completing and 
furnishing the School House in St. 
George's Fields, for the Reception and 
Maintenance of One Hundred poor Female 
Orphans and Children of distressed 
Freemasons • 

A GRAND CONCERT OF VOCAL AND INSTRU- 
MENTAL MUSIC will be performed at FREE 
MASONS* HALL, on MONDAY 30th March 
1795 . 

Haydn noted as follows: 'On 30 March 1795 
I was invited by Dr. Arnold and his 
associates to a grand concert in Free 
Maisons (Haydn's spelling) Hall: one of 
my big symphonies was to have been given 
under my direction, but since they 
wouldn't have any rehearsal, I refused to 
co-operate and appear. 

38 



It is suggested that a sense of 
•perfection' made Haydn decline. We can 
only repeat that 'benefit' concerts were 
well known to him ... that he basically 
had his own orchestra ... and that surely 
he had been exposed to his fair share of 
'command performances'. 

He did dedicate three of his finest 
piano trios to Mrs. Schroeter and left 
scores of his symphonies with 'a lady in 
England'. In the spring of 1795» Haydn 
planned to return to Vienna, despite the 
fact that various members of the British 
Royal household made generous offers to 
keep him in England. 

He even offered the excuse of 'attach- 
ment to his wife'. 

A more likely reason is the death of 

Prince Anton Esterhazy. Anton cared 

little about music. His successor, 

another Nicholas intended to resurrect 
the glorious past. 

On May 1795, Haydn's benefit concert 
took place. So he left England, his 
suitcase bulging with scores of music 
written ... with presents and a well- 
earned 1200 pound sterling - from 
concerts and lessons, plus a considerable 
income from other fees of appearances, 
etc. Three years in England netted him 
about 24000 florins. 

Contemporaries described the new Prince 
Nicholas as an 'Asiatic Despot'. 

We know he was excessively arrogant to 
Beethoven, whose brilliant Mass in C 



39 



major he found 'unbearable, ridiculous 
and detestable*. 

Working for this 'nobleman' who was to 
squander the family fortunes and kept a 
temple dedicated to debauchery in 
Vienna, was not easy for the composer, 
who was now well into his sixties. 

In London, Haydn once heard Handel's 
Messiah, and burst out in tears at the 
Alleluia Chorus. 

Baron von Swieten, his companion to 
London, was fond of Handel to the point 
where he considered it his mission to 
propagate his music. 

In 1795, Salomon gave Haydn an English 
libretto on the subject of 'the Crea- 
tion' , suggesting Haydn set it to music. 
Its authorship remains a mystery. 
According to Haydn, the idea came from a 
certain Lindley, but he did not say that 
this Lidley wrote the libretto. It is 
perhaps Thomas Lidley, a promoter of 
oratorios in London. Supposedly written 
for Handel, this Libretto was written by 
someone who knew his 'Milton' inside out. 
Not only are whole lines quoted, but the 
theme is constant 'Miltonic' as in ... 
' Paradi se lost ' . 

Haydn took it to Baron von Swieten, who 
habitually held concerts in the magnif- 
icent baroque hall of the Court library 
of Vienna. Von Swieten had been Mozart's 
patron, and engaged him to r eo r c he s t r a t e 
various Handel oratorios for wind 
instruments as the 'Library' had no 
organ . 



40 



Von Swieten thus exposed Mozart to 
baroque music. Beethoven, too was 
patronized by him and dedicated to von 
Swieten his first symphony. 



The ever-cautious Haydn approached von 
Swieten with this Libretto. Von Swieten 
not only translated it in German, but got 
together a group of music-loving noble- 
men, who each put 50 ducats towards its 
performance and most important, to pay 
Haydn, for putting it to music. 

The 'Creation' was performed in Vienna 
on April 29, 1798. When he worked on it, 
Haydn felt uplifted and remarked ... 
"Never was I so devout ... I knelt down 
every day and prayed to God to strengthen 
me for my work." Guiseppe Carpani, the 
Italian Poet, who translated the Creation 
in Italian, remarked ... "When Haydn felt 
his inspiration flagging, he 'rose' from 
the piano forte and began to say his 
rosary." ... "He never found this method 
to fail." 

Haydn said later that during the 
impressive performance, he was ... "as 



cold as ice - the next moment - 
on fire. More than once, I was 
should have a stroke." 



I s e emed 
afraid I 



Here again, some would attempt to read 
'masonry' into the libretto, to liken the 
characters. Adam and Eve, with the 
Papageno and Papagana of the Magic Flute 
... therefore, it had to be masonic? As 
to the music. Brother Webb writes: 

"The Creation, both in its music and 
the libretto, is of the same stuff as Die 
Zauberflote and Fidelio, both by masonic 



41 



composers, representatives of a great 
humantarian era in Central Europe, a 
golden age of freedom, cultivation of 
intellect and true sophistication, which 
were soon to disappear forever," 

Lest we get carried away, the Creation 
is based on Milton's 'Paradise Lost' 
written well before 1717, around 1660. 
It, in turn, was based on the fall of man 
as reported in Genesis. 

Die Zauberflote is an allegorical- 
political comic opera, whereas Fidelio is 
the product of a laborious struggle by 
Beethoven to compose opera. 

As for this 'golden age of freedom, 

cultivation of intellect and true 

sophistication, to disappear forever' ••• 
bl es sed be ! 

Beethoven, who criticised Mozart for 
his Don Giovanni, as immoral, surely made 
his point in the title of his one and 
only opera 'Leonora or the Triumph of 
eternal Love ' . 

Its premier was on November 20, 1804, 
one week after the French army occupied 
Vienna. The house was full of French 
officers and devoid of the nobility who 
had fled in panic. The next two days 
produced empty houses. 

In 1814, or ten years later, attempts 
were made to revive this opera. Remarked 
Beethoven ... "I could compose something 
new, far more quickly, than patch up the 
old ... I have to think out the entire 
work again ... this opera will win for me 
the martyr's crown ...". 



42 



Haydn, in the year of his 'Creation*, 
also composed a melody which would make 
people stand up ••• bow their heads ••• 
and inspire either deep loyalty, raw hate 
reverence . 



or 



It was the music for the National 
Anthem 'Gott Erhalte Franz dem Kaiser* 
(God be with Franz the Emperor). Its text 
came from a Jesuit, Lorenz Leopold 
Haschka, who was professor off Aesthetics 
at the Theresarium in Vienna. He was also 
a freemason. It would remain The Austrian 
National Anthem until 1939, at which 
time, it became *Deutschland uber alles* 
(Germany above all else). It also found 
its way in hymn books under *Austria*. 

In 1948, Austria adopted a new National 
Anthem ••• the music is from Mozart*s 
last composition to his lodge ... it was 
written less than two months before his 
death ... as a song to be sung at the 
closing of a lodge. 

Haydn proved himself a patriot until 
the end. On May 12, 1809, the great 
bombardment of Vienna started and a 
cannonball fell with tremendous noise 
near his house. Everyone trembled, not ,so 
the old invalid, who exclaimed after the 
uproar ... ** Children, fear not, where 
Haydn is nothing can happen to you ...**. 
Out of respect. Napoleon posted a guard 
of honour outside Haydn * s door. 

When the end came near, Haydn had 
himself carried to the piano and there he 
played the Austrian National Anthem three 
times. It was his final play at the 
piano. Within days, on May 31, he went 



43 



blissfully and gently to sleep to awake 
no more . 

At the impressive funeral service, 
Mozart's Requiem was performed. 

Beethoven, the man who arrived in 
Vienna in 1792, would remain there all 
his life. 

His distrust of mankind was almost 
notorious. He found patrons and friends, 
such as Archduke Rudolph and Princes 
Lichnowsky and Kinsky, yet he stood aloof 
from society. Temperamentally, he was 
never to be at ease. He moved from 
landlady to another house forever 
searching . 

For a description of Beethoven, we will 
let the diary of a Baron Kubeck von Kubau 
speak . . . : 



Beethoven Profile 



**The hero of music was a small man with 
unkept, bristling hair with no powder, 
which was unusual. He had a face deformed 
by pox marks, small shining eyes, and a 
continuous movement of every limb in his 
body. Whoever sees him for the first time 
will surely take him for a malicious, 
ill-natured and quarrelsome drunkard ... 
on the other hand, who sees him for the 
first time surrounded by his fame and 
glory, will surely see musical talent in 
every feature of his face ...". 

Beethoven matured during the upheavals 
of the French Revolution, and he was, in 



the words of Paul 



Laeng , 
44 



The Herald of 



the nineteenth century; the musical 
prophet of willpower for whom music was 
not only a pattern of sounds, nor even an 
aural means of self expression; it was 
also a moral and ethical power." 

To describe him intimately, one would 
need the elements of wind, thunder, 
lightning reinforced with an inexhaust- 
ible supply of sheer energy, poured in 
the mold of a genius. 

Beethoven chastized his friends, only 
to profusely apologize. He appeared 
untamed, yet locked in his music, the 
peace of the country-side as well as the 
rumblings of the battlefield and the 
choirs of angels. 

Beethoven grumbled and groaned, yet 
carried his ill-health and deafness 
alone, never ceasing to pour out music 
for the benefit of mankind. 



In 1802, as his deafness truly manifes- 
ted itself, he wrote his Heilgenstadt 
testament. Tragic, yet beautiful ... 

"Oh ye men who regard or declare me 
malignant, stubborn or cynical, how 
unjust are ye towards me ... You do not 
know the secret cause ... how humiliating 
when someone standing close to me heard a 
distant flute ... and I hear nothing, or 
a shepherd singing ... and I hear nothing 
... Forced already in my 28th year to 
become a philosopher ... Patience, I am 
told, I must choose as my guide ... O 
divine being. Thou who lookest down into 
my inmost soul. Thou unde r s t ande t h : Thou 
Knowest that love for mankind and a 
desire to do good dwell therein ... My 



45 



prayer is that your life may be better, 
less troubled by cares ..." 

He was to live another quarter century. 
He was to write many masterpieces. He was 
to suffer: hunger for love - and remain 
1 one 1 y . 

When the end came, it too, was torture. 

On March 14, 1827, Beethoven, who had 
so often raged against his condition, 
wrote: "I am resigned and will accept 
whatever fate may bring." 

For three days, his powerful body 
fought with the last terror and at five 
o'clock on March 26, there was a loud 
clap of thunder, Beethoven raised his 
eyes and clenched his fist as if to say 
"I defy you powers of evil! God is with 
ne ..." 

His final words to his friends were 
"Plaudite Amici, Comaedia Finita est** 
(Applaud my friends, the comedy is 
f ini shed) . 

AMADEUS 

Loved by the Gods ... As movies, such 
as "Amadeus" and "Forgesse Mozart" reach 
the market, together with dozens of 
sensational books, it behooves us to take 
a close look at some aspects of the man. 

We hear much about the so-called 
* Basle ' letters . 

Basically, we deal with all of nine 
letters (1779-1781), to his cousin Maria 
Anna Thekla Mozart, nicknamed Basle or 

46 



little cousin. The childish obscenities 
are few in number and of that bathroom 
ilk, which mark the humour of the times 
and the Mozart Family; witness the 
letters from his mother to father Mozart. 

Nowhere in these letters appears any 
sign of blasphemies which are so common 
in today's daily conversation. The 
letters are worthy of reading. Here is an 
excerpt from a letter to "little cousin": 

"Now, one day a shepherd was walking, 
along with 11,000 sheep ... in his hand, 
he held a stick with a beautiful rose- 
coloured ribbon ... it was his habit to 



do this 



well let 



go on 



. af t er he 



had walked for a good hour or so, he got 
tired and sat down near a river ... he 
fell asleep and dreamt that he had lost 
his sheep . 

In terror, he awoke ... only to find 
all 11,000 sheep beside him ... So he got 
up and walked on ... but not for long for 
he came to a bridge ... which was very 
long, but well protected from both sides 
to prevent people from falling into the 
river. Well, he looked at his flock and 
as he was obliged to cross the river, he 
began to drive his eleven thousand sheep 
over the bridge. Now, please be so kind 
as to wait until the eleven thousand 
sheep have reached the other side and 
then I shall finish my story ..." 

When I read the story, I recalled that 
at age 14, Mozart was knighted by the 
Pope ... and that unlike Gluck, he never 
availed himself of either the title or 
the influence attached to it. At that 
same visit to Rome, his hostess presented 



47 



him with 
Italian) . 
that book . 



the 'Arabian Night's' (in 
It looks as if Mozart did read 



Mozart Prepares Himself for Death 

He wrote to his father Leopold in his 
letter of April 4, 1787: 

"I hear you are really ill! ... As 
death, when we come to consider it 
closely, is the true goal of our exis- 
tence, I have formed during the last few 
years such close relations with this best 
and truest friend of mankind, that his 
image is not only no longer terrifying to 
me, but is indeed very soothing and 
consoling! And I thank my God for 
graciously granting me the opportunity 
(you know what I mean) of learning that 
death is the KEY which unlocks the door 
to our true happiness. I never lie down 
at night without reflecting that - young 
as I am - I may not live to see another 
day. Yet, no one of all my acquaintances 
could say that in company I am morose or 
disgruntled. For this blessing, I daily 
thank my Creator and wish with all my 
heart that each one of my fellow creat- 
ures could enjoy it." 

There can be no question that Mozart, 
in this letter, referred to the degrees 
known to both father and son. 

It has been said that the cautious 
Leopold destroyed some of Mozart's 
letters as they may have touched upon 
the, in Bavaria, forbidden subject of 
secrete societies. 



48 



Alfred Einstein, anauthority on 
Mozart, notes that to Mozart Catholicism 
and Freemasonry were like concentric 
circles . 



Let 



for 



moment examine just what 



could be concentric and in what circle. 

To the Catholic, stripped from dogmas 
and infallible papal teachings, there 
remains the centre ... Christ*s presence 
in the Eucharist surrounded by the Virgin 
birth. 

Such is the mysticism of the Catholic 
faith in and around the centre. 

Mozart was quite familiar with this. 

In Masonry, he found himself once more 
in the centre ... in a different way, yet 
in each obligation uttering the same 
solemn words "I in the presence of, 
followed by the name of the supreme 
being." 

The administrators of the Catholic 
faith held little awe for Mozart or his 
father. His dad, Leopold, was educated by 
Jesuits. Leopold himself, no one else, 
taught Mozart mathematics of which he was 
fond to the extent of scribbling formulas 
and figures all over the house ... he 
taught him Latin, French and Italian, 
plus music. Leopold himself was no mean 
musician and had written a treatise on 
violin playing which was respected across 
Europe . 

The Faith itself was a different matter 
and Mozart, in his letters, refers often 



49 



to the punctual following of obligatory 
pr ac t i c e s . 

In his lodge were over fourteen 
priests, some Jesuits, even though Maria- 
Therese had banned the order in the early 
1740 • s . 

Before Mozart, there was no Masonic 
music ... there were masonic songs, but 
nothing of a musical nature to distin- 
guish it from any other composer's 
compo s i t i on • 

Today, we may well be baffled by 
utterings such as by Alfred Einstein that 
"Mozart created his own masonic musical 
symbolism: the rhythm of the three knocks 
and the slurring of two notes, symbol- 
izing the ties of friendship (Gesellen- 
reise K.468), or the progressive PARALLEL 
THIRDS THAT CHARACTERIZE THE SONG FOR 
ADJOURNING THE MEETING (K.623)o 

We may not understand how, a professor 
Chailley or a Roger Cote, find definite 
masonic traces in some of Beethoven's 
works. We must record that these experts 
did decipher the language of music and 
projected it on a system of morality. 

We all know that in his last year 
Mozart wrote a (some say his own) 
Requiem. We are aware of the Magic Flute 
and maybe even the of the last cantata 
written for his Lodge, which proved 
Mozart's last ever public appearance. 

There is, however, a priceless small 
Motet, which remains much ignored. 



50 



In mid summer of 1791, Mozart composed 
this small Motet for four voices and 
strings, named the 'Ave Verum'. It was 
probably to be used in the 'Corpus 
Christi* service by the school teacher 
and choir leader Anton Stoll, in Baden 
near Vienna. He had performed other 
church works of Mozart and Michael Haydn 
and kept an eye on Constanze, a bit. 



The text confirms our theory of 
concentric circles ... it reads trans- 
lated from Latin ... "Greetings, to you, 
born of the Virgin Mary: to You who has 
truly suffered and was sacrificed for 
humanity on a cross. Be for us a last 
meal, in the final examination of death." 



Whereas the text 
song, confirms it .. 
doubt as to Mozart' 



, taken from an old 
. the music leaves no 
s intentions. It was 



his f inal 



' prayer ' 



His death appears to have been wit- 
nessed by Constanze, by Sussmayer and 
Sophie, Constanze's sister and perhaps 
the old factotum Deiner. His doctor, 
Thomas Franz Closset, was last on the 
scene • 

Whether he leaned his head against the 
wall and puffed up his cheeks to imitate 
the trumpet of his Requiem ... Tuba Mirum 
spargens sonum ... a miraculous trumpet 
shall spread its sound ... we shall never 
know for sure . 

We know that his rich masonic patron 
'Baron von Swieten', ordered a pauper's 
funeral ... in an unmarked grave ... 
which has never been found. 



51 



Speculation about the cause of death 
keeps tilling books and movie houses* 

A few days after his funeral, an 
elaborate memorial ceremony was held at 
the 'Newly Crowned Hope Lodge' . The Grand 
Master Karl Friedrich Hensler delivered 
the eulogy, from which we quote: 

"It has pleased the Eternal Architect 
of the World to separate from our 
fraternal chain the most beloved and 
meritorious of its members. Who did not 
know him? Who did not esteem him? Who did 
not love our worthy brother Mozart? Only 
a few weeks ago, he was still among us 
and exalted with his enchanted sounds the 
dedication of our Masonic Temple. 

Mozart's premature death represents an 
irreplaceable loss for the Art. 

His talents, already expressed in early 
boyhood, made him even then the rarest 
phenomenon of his generation: half of 
Europe revered him, the Great called him 
their favorite, and we called him our 
Brother . 

Brotherly love, a peaceable disposi- 
tion, support of good causes, ... these 
were the chief characteristics of his 
nature ... He was a husband, a father, a 
friend to his friends, a brother to his 
brothers . " 

*************** 

We have tried to give you a glimpse of 

three giants, of which two, for sure, 

were masons. Their memories linger ... 
their music lives forever. 



52 



History is but to create enthusiasm ... 
so ... let's keep our candles burning ... 
with the prudent wisdom of a Haydn, with 
the indomitable strength of a Beethoven 
and with the timeless beauty of a Mozart. 

THE VIENNA TRIAD 
* * * 



The following books were consulted in 
the preparation of this paper. 



MOZART 

Frances Carr: The Complete Operas of 
Mozart • 

Marcia Davenport: Mozart* 

Alfred Einstein: Mozart - His Character, 
His Work. 

Wolfgang Hildesheimer (Translated from 
German by Marion Farber): Mozart. 

Arthur Hutchings: Mozart - The Man, The 
Musician . 

Paul Henry Laing: The Creative World of 
Mozart . 

Herbert Kupherberg: Amadeus - A. Mozart- 
Mosaic . 

W.A. Mozart (Introduced and Translated by 
Ellen H. Bleiler): Mozart * s Don Giovanni. 



53 



W.A. Mozart (Edited by Emily Anderson): 
The Letters of Mozart and His Family. 

Peggy Woodford: The Illustrated Lives of 
Great Composers - Mozart. 

H.C. Robbins Landon & Donald Mitchel, 
Editors, with contributions by - Gerald 
Abraham, Friedrich Blume, Otto Erich 
Deutsch, Hans Engel, Karl Gelringer, Paul 
Hamburger, Arthur Hutchings, Hans Keller, 
H.C. Robbins Landon, Jens Peter Larson, 
and Donald Mitchel: The Mozart Companion. 



BEETHOVEN 

R.M. James: Beethoven. 

Joseph Kerman & Allan Tyson: The New 
Grove Beethoven. 

Ates Orga : The Illustrated Lives of Great 
Composers - Beethoven. 

Denis Arnold & Nigel Fortune, Editors, 
with contributions by - Denis Arnold, 
Elsie Arnold, Philip Barford, Winton 
Dean, Basil Dean, Nigil Fortune, Denis 
McCalden, Derek Melville, Leslie Orrey, 
Robert Simpson, Harold Truscott, and Alan 
Tyson: The Beethoven Companion. 



HAYDN 

Neil Butterworth: The Illustrated Lives 
of Great Composers - Haydn. 

Jens Peter Larson with Georg Feder: The 
New Grove Haydn. 



54 



Karl Geiringer: A Great Creative Life in 
Mus ic . 



OTHER SOURCES CONSULTED 

ARS Quatuor Cor ona t or um : Transactions of 
the Quator Coronati Lodge No. 2076; 
Volumes 84, 89, 90 and 94. 

: The New American Encyclopedia. 

: Encyclopedia Britannica. 

Tryon Edwards: The New Dictionary of 
Thoughts . 

Adrien Fauchier Magnan : Les Peties Courts 
D*Allemagne Au XVII erne Siecle. 

David Mason Green: Green*s Biographical 
Encyclopedia of Composers. 

Kent Henderson: Masonic World Guide. 

Michael Kennedy: The Oxford Dictionary of 
Music . 

J. Merrill Knapp : The Magic of The Opera. 

Paul Henry Lang: The Experience of Opera. 

Norman Lebrecht: The Book of Music 
Anecdote . 

Eugene Lennhoff : The Freemason. 

Peter A. Scholes: The Oxford Companion to 
Music . 

Yehudi Menuhin & Curtis A. Davis: The 
Mus ic of Man . 

55 



Eathan Morddin: Opera Anecdotes, 

Simon & Schuster: The Simon & Schuster 
Book of the Opera. 

REVIEW OF PAPER PRESENTED TO 
THE HERITAGE LODGE 

September 17, 1986 

by 

W.Bro. John M. Boersma, titled 

THE VIENNA TRIAD 

This 'review' was prepared by R.W.Bro. 
Wallace E. McLeod, Charter Member of The 
Heritage Lodge, and read in lodge by 
W.Bro. James Major. 

Worshipful Master and Brethren: 

I must begin by apologizing to the 
Lodge, and to my good friend W.Bro. John 
Boersma, that I am not present to hear 
his paper. By way of excuse I plead the 
necessity of attending the convocation of 
King Cyrus Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, of 
which I am an officer. 

Bro. Boersma' s knowledge, his dili- 
gence, his energy, and his enthusiasm, 
are familiar to all who know him, and are 
particularly well demonstrated in his 
paper this evening. He has cast his net 
wide, and in addition to outlining the 
lives of these three great composers he 
has tried to sketch the background 
against which they moved. He includes a 
tremendous amount of detail, and for my 
part I suspect that the audience would 
have found it somewhat easier to follow 

56 



if his scope had been 
ted . 



bit more restric- 



Over the years Bro. Boersma and I have 
had several 'full and frank discussions' 
(as the politicians put it) on Masonic 
matters, and I know that he would not 
want me to paper over any points of 
disagreement between us. Actually, I have 
only several small corrections, and one 
or two points that might have been added. 
To begin with, the first Royal Freemason, 
Francis Duke of Lorraine, was initiated 

t in 1735, but in 1731, probably lat 



no 



October 



e 
Even 



in September or early in . „,^.. 

though he did become Holy Roman Emperor 
in 1745, he was not a Hapsburg, except by 
marriage. By a curious mischance, Bro. 
Boersma says that the Emperor Leopold was 
Francis's father; actually Leopold died 
three years before Francis was born. 



Haydn's magnificent testimony to 
Mozart's genius, "I ... tell you before 
God that your son is the greatest 
composer I know," was spoken on Saturday, 
12 February 1785. This was the very next 
day after Haydn had been initiated into 
Freemasonry, and it would be pleasant to 
imagine that, in some way, the generous 
spirit of the gentle Craft had inspired 
the tribute. Alas, it cannot be. "The 
masonic ceremonial to which Haydn had 
looked forward with keen anticipation 
touched no chord in his heart and ... he 
took no further steps in his lodge, lost 
interest and soon forgot all about it" 
(Bro. Frederick H. Smyth, AQC 94, 1981, 
pp. 74-5). Ten years later, as Bro. 
Boersma notes, the composer refused to 
take part in a benefit concert at 



57 



Freemason's Hall, London. Haydn was not, 
we conclude, a devoted Mason. 

With regard to Beethoven, despite the 
eloquent letter from the Grand Lodge of 
France, I must agree with Bro. Boersma 
that there is no convincing evidence that 
he was a Freemason. The selection of: a 
this or that musical key, the choice of a 
particular set of instruments, the use of 
a special rhythm or musical 'symbol' , the 
decision to write a long or short piece- 
- - none of these, in default of real 
documentation, provide sufficient reason 
to recognize Masonic affinities. Beet- 
hoven, we conclude, did not belong to the 
Craft . 

No, the only serious Mason of the triad 
was Mozart. I should have liked to have 
seen a more orderly presentation of his 
Masonic career, his initiation on 14 
December 1784, and the rest. But perhaps 
Bro. Boersma feels that this topic has 
been done to death. One could cite for 
example Bro. Peter de Karwin's popular 
multi-media presentation, "Whom the Gods 
Love ...," summarized in the Proceedi ngs 
of this Lodge, volume 7 (1983-4), pp. 20- 
23. It might have been useful (without in 
any way endorsing their conclusions) to 
refer to three other fairly recent books, 
in case some Brethren wish to pursue the 
Masonic connection further: Jacques 
Chailley, The Magic Flute: Masonic Opera 
(New York, 1971); Katharine Thomson, The 
Masonic Thread in Mozart (London, 1977); 
H.C. Robbims Landon, Mozart and the 
Masons (London, 1982). I forbear to 
enlarge on the topic, except to say that 
I now think that there is much less 
Freemasonry in 'The Magic Flute' than is 



58 



generally alleged, and than I personally 
used to believe. 

Bro. Boersma mentions two recent movies 
that deal with Mozart. He might also have 
mentioned a musical selection that is 
quite popular among the younger genera- 
tion: *Rock Me, Amadeus' by the Austrian 
rock star Falco (1985). It includes a 
brief *voice over' biography that 
mentions the Masonic connection. 

Let me once again thank the speaker of 
the evening, W.Bro. John Boersma, for 
reminding us of three men of genius, for 
setting out their Masonic connections, 
for showing us some of the places and 
people associated with them, and above 
all for letting us hear a little of their 
inspiring music. 



Response to R.W.Bro. McLeod's Review 

by 
W.Bro. John Boersma 

His kind remarks we have graciously 
accepted • 



The errors pointed out we have correc- 
ted. 

We are mostly in agreement with the 
other comments made, however, with regard 
to Joseph Haydn we quote from AQC 94- 
pp. 77, Bro. C.F.W. Dyer ... "Bro. Webb 
attempts, it seems, to excuse Haydn 
because he did not attend or belong to a 
Lodge. This is unfortunately to fall into 
a common trap and apply the principles 
and practice of today in England to 200 

59 



years ago in Austria and Hungary. Even in 
those days in England it was not unusual 
and not necessarily important, nor was 
taking the two further degrees regarded 
as essential ... even the closing down of 
lodges did not mean that the brethren 
were not practicing - merely not meeting 
or making masons . . . '* 

I sense more than I can today prove 
that we shall unearth much more about 
these three members of The Vienna Triad. 

We are grateful to R.W.Bro. McLeod for 
his mentioning of 'Rock me Amadeus* etc. 

We owe R.W.Bro. McLeod a vote of thanks 

for taking out the time and effort to 
comment on this paper. 

John Boer sma 



60 



KNOWLEDGE - 

THE UNIVERSITY, AND MORAL VALUES** 

by 

V.W.Bro. Burton Clare Matthews 

It is a great privilege for me to be 
invited to speak at The Heritage Lodge 
Third Annual Banquet. This is partic- 
ularly so as I note that your speakers on 
two previous occasions were such eminent 

men and masons Right Worshipful 

Brother Allan Leal and Brother The 
Honourable John Matheson. 

I thank R.W.Bro. Pos for a most 
gracious and generous introduction. 

I have found, on occasion, that the 
remarks used to introduce and thank 
speakers often contain nuggets of humour 
or perceptive insight. Some years ago, as 
a member of our local Brotherhood of 
Anglican Churchmen, I was asked to 
present a cheque to St. Monica's House to 
assist in its support of unwed mothers. 

On the appointed day, I arrived at the 
home to find residents gathered in the 
living room. Following my brief remarks 
and the presentation, a young mother-to- 
be arose and somewhat nervously began an 



* * 



Paper presented at the Third 
Annual Heritage Banguet of Heritage 
Lodge, held in the Visitors Centre, Black 
Creek Pioneer Village, Toronto, 29 
January, 1987. 



61 



expression of thanks. But as she pro- 
ceeded she became increasingly enthus- 
iastic in her expression of gratitude 
ending her remarks by saying, "In fact, 
if it were not for the men in the 
Brotherhood of Anglican Churchmen, some 
of us would not be here." 

Although The Heritage Lodge is rela- 
tively new, it is unique among masonic 
lodges in its founding aims and object- 
ives which place special emphasis on 
preserving the history - the Heritage of 
Masonry. The aims and objectives of The 
Heritage Lodge present a challenge and an 
opportunity that are unique and exciting. 
I commend the lodge on its success in 
these few short years in fulfilling those 
aims and objectives. 

I know, of course, that as in every 
human endeavour we often fall short of 
our objectives and sometimes as we look 
back on any given year we wonder if we 
have made any progress at all. But even 
small steps forward are worth noting. 

Two chaps from St. John's decided to go 
hunting for moose in Northern 
Newfoundland. They chartered a plane to 
fly them in with all their gear, landing 
on a remote lake. When they arrived the 
pilot promised to return the next 
Saturday to pick them up. At the same 
time he warned them to shoot only one 
moose because the small plane could not 
take off with the two hunters, all their 
gear and any more than one moose. 

So the following Saturday, on schedule, 
the pilot returned and found the hunters 
and all of their gear and two dead moose. 



62 



The pilot reminded them again that he 
could not take off with that heavy load. 

But the hunters argued that they had 
flown in last year with the same plane 
but a different pilot and he had agreed 
to take off with the two hunters, all of 
their gear and two moose. 

Finally, the pilot agreed. They loaded 
up and took off down the lake but as the 
plane lifted it caught the tops of some 
trees and crashed. 

As the smoke cleared, one of the 
hunters lying on the ground, revived, 
blinked and looked around to see his 
buddy leaning against the tree amidst the 
wreckage. The chap on the ground said, 
"where are we?" the other answered, 
"about 100 yards further than last year." 

As I considered the remarks 1 might 
make tonight, my mind dwelt on the name 
"Heritage" and I kept returning to the 
heritage of masonry and the heritage of 
the university. 



I began to recognize the similarities 
of the two Institutions in their origins, 
based on religious concepts, their common 
emphasis on knowledge, and the moral 
values that arise from the endless search 
for knowledge. 

So I will speak to you for a few 
moments on these matters. 

The first universities were established 
more than 900 years ago by religious 
organizations in Europe. At a much more 

63 



recent date, universities were estab- 
lished in Canada, also by religious 
denominations. Almost all of them arose 
out of religious controversy. In fact, 
the first university college established 
in Canada was King's College in Windsor, 
Nova Scotia, in 1789. It was established 
by Anglicans who later founded two more 
King's Colleges, one in Toronto, Ontario, 
in 1827 and one in Fredericton, New 
Brunswick, in 1829. 

The Anglicans made every attempt to 
make these three colleges strongholds of 
their religion and this led, of course, 
to bitter controversy over grants of 
support from the public purse. The 
Anglicans also insisted that all of their 
professors be Anglicans and all students 
subscribe to the 39 articles of the 
Church of England. In lower Canada this 
controversy led to the establishment of a 
non-denominational college by Lord 
Dalhousie but by the time Dalhousie 
(1818) actually opened its doors, the 
Presbyterians had insisted on appointing 
all the professors, whereupon the 
Baptists set off to establish Acadia 
University (1838) (its first principal 
being a professor who had been rejected 
by Dalhousie), and the Methodists set up 
Mount Allison (1858) on the border of 
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to serve 
both provinces. The Scottish Catholics 
opened St. Xavier (1853) in Antigonish, 
the French speaking Catholics, College 
Saint Anne, and the Irish Catholics, St. 
Mary's University (1841) in Halifax. 

In Ontario, the impact of the church on 
the development of universities is 
equally evident. Conflict arose immedi- 



64 



ately because King's College in Toronto 
held firm for the Anglican faith through 
Bishop Strachan. But the dissenters held 
the majority in the legislature. And so, 
because of lack of funds, it was sixteen 
years before King's College would open. 
In the meantime, the Methodists had 
established Victoria College in Cobourg 
and Albert College in Belleville. The 
Presbyterians had set up Queen's Univers- 
ity (1841) in Kingston where the 
Catholics had also established a College, 
later to become the University of 
Regiopolis in 1866. It closed three years 
later in 1869. 

Conflict continued until 1849, when 
King's College became the non-denomin- 
ational provincial university of Toronto. 
But by that time the Bishop of Huron, in 
disagreement with Bishop Strachan, 
founded a rival Huron College in London 
and it became one of the elements of the 
University of Western Ontario (1878). The 
Baptists had also founded their colleges 
in Woodstock and Toronto which later 
became McMaster University (1887). 

Today, the Universities in Ontario are 
all wards of the State -- no longer under 
the protective shadow of the church, a 
situation which some view with great 
alarm. Cardinal Newman, for example, 
observed that one could not assume that 
the modern university, with secularist 
attitude and teaching, could also provide 
a basis for morality. 

I do not hold to this view. On the 
contrary, I believe that the university 
can and does, indeed, nourish a set of 



65 



values and habits of mind that are 
central to a morality of life. 

Masonry and the university have 
traditionally honoured knowledge even 
though society, generally, has only 
recently paid much respect to knowledge. 
The university, which is devoted to 
knowledge, has a long-standing commitment 
to moral values. Masonry and the univers- 
ity are thus conjoined in the great task 
of serving mankind. 

When I became a mason, I was immediat- 
ely impressed by the fact that masonry 
gives such pride of place to knowledge 
and to truth — and that it has done so 
throughout the ages. This "beautiful 
system of morality" constantly reminds us 
of the intimate relationship between 
knowledge and moral precepts. 

Have you ever counted the number of 
times in masonry that reference is made 
to knowledge and to learning? some 
exampl es : 

-"knowledge grounded on accuracy, 
aided by labour and promoted by 
perseverance" 

-"the paths of virtue and of 
science" 

-"make the liberal arts and 
sciences your future study" 

-"extend your researches into the 
hidden mysteries of nature and 
science" . 



66 



It is remarkable that masonry should 
have accorded such honour and respect to 
knowledge when one considers that it is 
only in recent times» within this 
century, in fact, that knowledge, as 
such, has commanded a real respect in 
s o c i e t y - a t - 1 a r ge • Society has tradit- 
ionally revered the products of knowledge 
but not always knowledge itself. Two 
hundred years ago the industrial revolut- 
ion exploded upon the world, based on new 
machines and on new products of all kinds 
which served to make men*s lives more 
comfortable. More than that, knowledge is 
one of the prime bases for the social 
wealth which we enjoy. 

Kenneth Galbraith has said, "In the 
eighteenth century and the millennia 
before that, wealth in all civilized 
society was largely expressed in land. In 
the nineteenth century, capital replaced 
land as the decisive factor in economic 
success." He goes on to argue that in 
this century knowledge itself has become 
the decisive factor and the high estate 
of knowledge in our society is a reflect- 
ion of that fact. As Claud Bissel, a 
former President of the University of 
Toronto, has remarked, "today, knowledge 
commands great respect and its possessors 
command increasingly high financial 
rewards." 



The university has always played a 
central role in the development and 
dissemination of knowledge in atomic 
energy, the computer and the magic of 
electronics, the biochemistry of life 
itself and the genetic manipulation of 
organisms both large and small. 



67 



The university also plays a major role 

in educating more and more people 

people who recognize that knowledge is a 
necessary and useful commodity in today's 
world. For these reasons and others, 
governments in Canada have, during the 
last thirty years, allocated massive 
amounts of money to the support of 
universities • 

For example, in 1950, there were only 
five universities in the province of 
Ontario — all of them small and largely 
independent of government sources of 
funds. But during the 1950*s, the demand 
for knowledge, as evidenced by increasing 
numbers of people who wanted to attend 
university, encouraged the government to 
allocate more and more money to the 
support of po s t - s econda r y education. By 
1964, there were fifteen universities in 
Ontario supported from the public purse 
to the extent of $250 million per year. 
In 1986, more than 1.5 billion dollars 
was spent by government in support of the 
university system in Ontario. 



The university today is, therefore, 
very much in the public domain and a 
central force in the material progress of 
our society and our nation. Yet, it 
retains a traditional commitment to moral 
values which derives, in part, from the 
fact that it arose 900 years ago from 
within the christian church and until 
recent times has been closely associated 
with the church. 

The twin columns which support a modern 
university and lead to these values are 
science and humanistic studies. The 
pursuit of science and of humanistic 

68 



study demonstrates and inculcates moral 
values that are important to man's lives 
— values that should guide the lives of 
everyone of us. 

The methods of science are based on the 
simple proposition that knowledge can be 
verified or tested experimentally. So» 
the scientific method teaches us to 
honour truth — to acknowledge facts even 
when our emotions are deeply stirred — 
to accept facts even when we might wish 
to believe otherwise. While ultimate 
truth may escape us, we must learn to 
conduct our lives in the light of 
revealed truth, to subordinate our 
opinions and wishes to objective evidence 
if we are to avoid fundamental error. 



For example, the study of human 
genetics and human races has revealed a 
basic truth which, if accepted by all 
men, should prevent the racial and other 
discrimination that appears so many times 
and in so many places today, and not just 
in far away places. Different colours of 
skin and different traditions are 
superficial by comparison with the truth 
of the a 1 1 - pe r V a s i ve similarities that 
bind the human family together. Hitler 
said blacks cannot do that, yet they 
could; he said Jews were not capable of 
this, yet they were; he said women were 
inferior to men, and they are not. In a 
culture where the truth shows that such 
statements are without foundation, men's 
prejudices must fall away. 

Secondly, the scientific method teaches 
us the value of s e 1 f -d i s c i p 1 i ne through 
the discipline exhibited by nature — in 
physics, in chemistry, in biology. We see 



69 



it in a blade of grass, a drop of water, 
a crystal — all of these are part of the 
perfection of the universe. As Confucius 
put it, "order is heaven's only law." 

More recently. Lord Beaverbrook, in his 
book. Don't Trust to Luck , wrote that man 
"can only keep his judgement intact, his 
nerves sound and his mind secure by the 
process of self-discipline." Self- 
discipline does not mean the straight- 
jacket of conformity. There must be 
leeway for the exercise of responsible 
judgement and freedom of decision. While 
nature displays order, she displays that 
order within a range of acceptable 
limits. S e 1 f -d i s c i p 1 i ne requires us to 
display that same range of quality. 

Thirdly, the scientific method teaches 
us humility — to subordinate one's own 
hopes and desires to the demands of 
reality. Thomas Henry Huxley, a great 
biological scientist, emphasized this 
quality of humanity in a letter to 
Charles Kingsley. "Science," he wrote, 
"seems to me to teach in the highest and 
strongest manner the great truth which is 
embodied in the christian conception of 
entire surrender to the will of God. Sit 
down before a fact, as a little child, be 
prepared to give up every preconceived 
notion. Follow humbly wherever and to 
whatever abyss nature leads or you shall 
learn nothing. I have only begun to learn 
contentment and peace of mind since I 
have resolved at all risks to do this." 

From humility comes tolerance, and 
without humility one cannot give credence 
to the opinion of others. The virtue of 
tolerance is sorely needed in the world 



70 



of today a world in which so many 

people seem unwilling or uninterested to 
acknowledge the rights of others who 
cherish a different culture or who may, 
at times, walk a different pace. 

Fourthly, the scientific method teaches 
us optimism and perseverance. The history 
of the pursuit of knowledge, whether of 
the internal structure of the atom or of 
the active agent causing cancer, amply 
illustrates that nature does not reveal 
her secrets easily. Yet, if man is 
persistent and doggedly pursues her, he 
does eventually uncover more and more of 
the hidden mysteries. Everyone of us to 
be a successful seeker after truth and to 
live a life of moral value, must display 
a spirit of indomitable perseverance. 
Every worthwhile achievement requires 
persistence and courage in the face of 
frustrations. Pasteur said, "My only 
strength lies in my tenacity." 

Optimism and perseverance allow us to 
accept failure as a part of life — not 
the end of life. 



These moral values — To honour truth, 
to practice se 1 f -di scipl ine , humility and 
tolerance, optimism and perseverance — 
which arise from the secular pursuit of 
scientific knowledge, are not a soft set 
of rules. They represent a stern morality 
calling to mind the old testament 
morality of truth, justice and integrity. 

These, of course, are not the whole of 
the morality that we as masons all 
profess to admire. The other column that 
supports the university, the humanistic 
study, offers still more. 



71 



Humanism is concerned with the cultiva- 
tion of certain attitudes of mind that 
grow out of the study of the great 
classics of literature, history and 
philosophy. It teaches us that not all of 
the great insights come from systematic 
persistence and diligence, that some of 
the greatest insights come to the minds 
of a few rare individuals in flashes of 
br i 1 1 i ance . 

Humanism teaches us to be suspicious of 
utilitarianism as the only criterion of 
worth and encourages us to be constructi- 
vely cautious in our attitude toward 
progress and improvement. 

Finally, humanistic study teaches us 
the value of human love and the virtues 

that arise from it the virtue of 

kindness and charity toward others 

loyalty and respect within the family. 



THE CHALLENGE OF TO-MORROW 

And so the university and masonry are 
at one in their search for knowledge and 
moral values. The Masonic Foundation of 
Ontario, through bursaries for university 
students and in its support of research 
on multiple sclerosis and its contri- 
butions to deafness research, is a 
practical example of masonic commitment 
to education and research. 

But the extra challenge facing the 
university and masonry is clear. The 
moral values of truth and justice, 
humility and tolerance, perseverance 
sustained by optimism, love, and charity 

72 



have always been at risk but never more 
so than today. 

In the seventies, man's knowledge of 
this world and his ability to manipulate 
it have increased remarkably. Yet, as the 
decade ended, critics and pundits seemed 
unanimous in the view that society today 
faces a crisis of the human spirit. They 
disagreed as to the causes — and some of 

the effects television, excessive 

affluence, permissiveness, feminism or 
simply a resentment that the expectations 
of the sixties had not been fulfilled, or 
even more dispiriting, the unspoken 
belief that another depression is not 
only inevitable, but even imminent. 

As Richard Gwyn has written, "The vogue 
phrase was, 'The New Narcissism'. 
"Narcissism meant ••• the cuisinarting of 
Canada, designer jeans, gucci shoes, the 
hot tub instead of the cold shower, male 
cosmetics as the new growth industry, and 
psychiatrists getting asked on talk shows 
about sexual anorexia instead of about 
frigidity or impotence." 

The best-sellers of the seventies bore 
titles like Winning Through Intimidation: 
Be Your Own Best Friend . The seventies' 
people were self-centred — se 1 f -as ser t i - 
veness and s e 1 f - ac t ua 1 i z a t i on and self- 
awareness and self-fulfillment as the 
imperatives (the be-all and end-all) of 
personal behaviour. They also experienced 
self -despai r . 

There are a few bulwarks against such 

private demons the church, the 

universities and institutions such as 



73 



masonry. Precisely because they are so 
few, their responsibility is great* 

While the growth of knowledge about our 
world has extended our material comforts 
— has relieved suffering in many, but 
not all, parts of the world — the growth 
of knowledge about ourselves, and our use 
of it, has been less impressive. Perhaps 
this is because the lessons of humanism, 
the moral precepts that should guide and 
direct our actions, must be learned anew 
by each generation. In any event, the 
problems of interpersonal relationships, 
self-despair and the fragmentation of the 
family, present a new dimension of human 
conflict — the conflict of the spirit. 

This is the new environment in which 
our institution of masonry and the 
university now find themselves. The 
effectiveness of both depends on the 
leadership and dedication of all of us 
who count ourselves as members. 



So the university, first under ecclesi- 
astical sponsorship and now with massive 
secular support, constantly nourishes 
those basic moral values that make men's 
lives worthwhile. In that sense the 
university is at one with masonry whose 
"every character, figure, and emblem has 
a moral tendency." 

As we go forward, let us remember that, 
as times change, so must our institutions 
change. Let us, by all means, hold to 
that which is good from the past but let 
us not be afraid to adjust creatively 
within ourselves and our institutions to 
resolve the new problems and opportunit- 
ies that now face the human race. 

74 



Let me close with the words of Abraham 
Lincoln in his second annual message to 
Congress in December, 1862. I have 
recalled these words many times when 
faced with difficult decisions. They 
contain an admonition — an admonition 
that one can apply in one's personal 
life, in our masonic craft, in our public 
or private avocations and in the resolut- 
ions of the problems currently facing our 
na t ions • 

"The dogmas of the quiet past are 
inadequate to the stormy present. 
The occasion is piled high with 
difficulty and we must rise to the 
occasion. As our case is new, so 
we must think and act anew." 



b e r 



nd 



Brethren, even as we remem___ 

celebrate the richness of our heritage, 
let us go forward with renewed enthusi- 
asm, sustained by the traditions of our 
nstitutions, and find in every diffi- 
ulty a new opportunity. "Such should be 
the nature of our institutions." 



1 n 
c 



Burton C. Matthews 



7 5 



WORSHIPFUL BROTHER JOSEPH BRANT*** 



(THAYENDANEGEA) 

by 

Bro. William W. Mitchell, 
B.A., M.Sc.Ed., D . Bus . Admin 



There have been a number of great men 
who, history has informed us, have begun 
their lives on this earth in a very 
*lowly' manner, and have risen to great 
heights of achievements. Worshipful 
Brother Joseph Brant was one of these who 
had a very insignificant beginning in 
this world. He was a native Indian, who 
achieved greatness, and whose name has 
been passed down through the years, and 
his name is kept alive in our midst by 
his name being used to designate a 
County, a Township, a City, Streets, 
Avenues, a Hospital, a Museum, a Masonic 
District, and a Masonic Lodge. 

Between 1700 and 1760, the home of the 
Iroquois Confederacy was in an area of 
what is now known as New York State - 



west from the Hudson River, and south 
from Lake Ontario to Tioga Point, and the 
Mohawk Valley was one of its principle 
features . 



* * * 

Paper presented at the Regular 

Meeting of The Heritage Lodge held in the 

Brantford Masonic Temple, Brantford, 

Wednesday, March 11, 1987. 

76 



The prized hunting lands of the 
Iroquois was in what is now the State of 
Ohio. It was the custom to station 
hunters there to keep a supply of meat 
and skins flowing back to their home 
land, to be used for food and clothing; 
and to also act as an advance 'warning 
system' of any enemy approaching from 
that direction. Many adventurous couples 
in their early married life, went there 
for a few years before they settled down 
in the tribal lands in the Mohawk Valley. 
Worshipful Brother Joseph Brant's young 
parents were in Ohio when his sister, 
Molley or Deyonwadonte was born in 1737, 
and they were still there on November 24, 
1742 when Joseph, or T h a y e nd a n e g e a was 
born. This Indian name given to Joseph 
had the meaning 'two sticks of wood bound 
together' , which was a mohawk symbol of 
s t r eng t h . 

While growing up in Ohio, Joseph was 
educated in the traditional manner of an 
Iroquois brave. As a Mohawk, a member of 
the proudest tribe in the powerful 
Iroquois Confederacy, he learned the rich 
heritage of his ancestors. He learned the 
practical lessons of hunting, wood lore, 
and the skills of war, on which his 
future life would depend. 

Brant returned to the Mohawk Valley 
with his family when he was 8 years of 
age, only to find that many Europeans had 
settled on the land that had previously 
been occupied by members of the Iroquois 
Confederacy, and this was a most pro- 
voking condition to the Indians, as they 
considered this was their land. 



77 



After Joseph's father d i e d » his mother 
married an Indian with the Christian name 
of Brant, and so Joseph became known as 
'Brant's Joseph' and 'Joseph Brant'. 

Joseph learned to read and write in a 
settler's school which had been started 
at Canajoharie, and later attended school 
at Fort Hunter. 

Naturally Joseph's life had first of 
all been influenced by his immediate 
family, but his Masonic activities were 
influenced by a number of people with 
whom he became associated with during his 
lifetime. The most influential person 
appears to have been Sir William Johnson, 
an Irishman, who became the superinten- 
dent of Indian Affairs. Sir William was 
highly respected by the Indians, and he 
studied their language, and became quite 
eloquent in the Indian tongue. So high 
was the estimation of Sir William by the 
Indians, that they made him a Chief, and 
he was given the Indian name of 'Warrag- 
hiyageh', said to mean 'Chief of Af- 
fairs', or 'Man of Business'. 

Sir William Johnson was influential in 
having his nephew Guy Johnson come from 
Ireland to this New World. Guy and Joseph 
attended the same school, where they 
became great friends. 

Later, it was quite probable that Sir 
William Johnson went to Union Lodge //I, 
at Albany, and became a member there, on 
April 10» 1766, with the ulterior purpose 
of being able to establish a Lodge at 
Johnson Hall in Johnstown, and that Guy 
Johnson, Col. Glaus, and John Butler also 
became members of Union Lodge //I on this 



78 



same date, likely to insure the success 
of this project. 

The first Charter or Warrant of 
Constitution of St Patrick's Lodge //8, to 
be held at Johnson Hall, Johnstown, in 
the County of Albany, in the Province of 
New York in America, was issued on May 
23, 1766 by the Provincial Grand Master 
of the Province of New York in America, 
R.W.Bro. George Harison. Named in this 
warrant as the first Officers of the 
Lodge were: Sir William Johnson, as 
Master; Guy Johnson, Esq. as the Senior 
Warden; Daniel Claus, Esq. as Junior 
Warden, and John Butler, Esq. as the 
Seer e tar y • 

Samuel Kirkland was another close 
associate of Joseph Brant. He was a New 
England youth, who was a fellow student 
of Joseph Brant while attending Moor's 
Mission School. Later he became a 
Congregational Missionary to the Oneidas. 

Gilbert Tice, entered as Member //5 on 
the By-Laws of St. Patrick's Lodge on May 
23, 1766, was one of those who accom- 
panied Brant and Guy Johnson on their 
visit to England in 1776. 

It should be also noted here that Sir 
William Johnson's third wife was Joseph 
Brant's sister 'Molly', and they were 
married in 1760. 

In 1755, the conflict between the 
French and English expanded into North 
America, and many engagements took place 
on Iroquois Confederacy lands. A large 
number of Indians took up arms on the 



79 



side of the English 
protect their lands. 



i n 



attempt to 



At the age of thirteen. Brant accom- 
panied Sir William Johnson to Lake 
George, where he took part in the Battle 
of Crown Point. The Indians and the 
British continued the war to the 
successful conclusion for them, defeating 
the French in 1763, and so secured their 
claims to North America. At the age of 
nineteen, and influenced no doubt by Sir 
William Johnson, Brant enrolled in Moor's 
Indian Charity Mission School at New 
Lebanon in Connecticut, U.S.A., which was 
operated by Reverend Eleazar Wheelock, 
(Moor's School was the forerunner of the 
present Dartmouth College). Brant was 
older than most of the other students, 
but he studied hard, and at the time that 
he left this school, he was assisting 
with the instruction of other students. 

After leaving school, he settled at 
Canajoharie, where he divided his time 
between farming, and leading his Indian 
followers in assisting the British cause 
in the struggle against the French, which 
was still persisting to some extent. 

Joseph married Christine (or Owase), 
the daughter of Sauquoit (or Antone, as 
the Dutch at Albany called him). Sauquoit 
was a Chief of the Oneidas, and acted as 
their interpreter. The marriage ceremony 
of Christine and Joseph was first carried 
out in the customary manner of the 
Indian, which was followed by an Anglican 
Church wedding ceremony. 

In the peace that followed the final 
struggles against the French in 1763, 



80 



Brant turned to full-time farming, 
enjoying the home life with his wife 
Owase, and their two children, Isaac and 
Christina. Owase died of tuberculosis 
when their son was only seven years of 
age. Brant in 1773 married Owase's 
sister, Onogola, (or Susannah as she was 
also called), who succumbed to the same 
disease a year later. 

After several years, and just about the 
time of the beginning of the American 
Revolution, Brant again married, this 
time to Catherine Croghan, who was half 
Irish and half Indian. Brant had no 
children by his second marriage, but by 
his third wife he had seven children. 

On July 11, 1774, Sir William Johnson 
passed to the Grand Lodge above, at which 
time Brant's life was again altered. 
After the church service for Sir William 
and the Masonic services that followed, 
the solemn rites of the Condolence 
Council of the Confederacy ended with the 
laying of six strings of wampum on the 
grave of their Chief, War raghiyageh . 

In that same year of 1774, Colonel Guy 
Johnson was appointed Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs, succeeding Sir William 
Johnson, and Joseph Brant became his 
Secretary . 

Soon after these appointments, a visit 
to England was arranged, and it was while 
on this visit that Joseph Brant joined 
the Masonic Order. It is felt that Guy 
Johnson and Gilbert Tice could have been 
very instrumental in having Brant become 
a Mason. The date on Brant's Masonic 
Certificate is April 26 A.L. 5776, A.D. 



81 



1776. The certificate was signed by Jas. 
Heseltine, who was the Grand Secretary of 
the Moderns from 1769 to 1780. It states 
that Brother Joseph Th a y e n d an e g e a , was 
made a Mason and admitted to the Third 
Degree of Masonry at the Lodge meeting at 
the Falcon, Prince's Street, Leicester 
Fields, London. 

It was on February 28th, while on this 
trip to England, that Brant was presented 
at Court. During this stay it appears 
that he received attention from various 
people of note, including the King of 
England. So intimate did this friendship 
become, that it was King George III who 
supposedly presented Brant with his 
Masonic apron. It was at the request of 
James Boswell that Joseph Brant sat at 
Romney, for the painting of the famous 
portrait which is now in the National 
Gallery of Canada at Ottawa. 

It was after Brother Brant's return to 
America, and during the American War, in 
the fighting around Quebec, and later in 
the Schoharie Valley, that we hear 
stories of Bro. Brant rescuing from 
torture and death, prisoners who gave the 
Masonic signs. These stories, whether 
well founded or not, concerns most 
notably a Col. McKinstry of Claverack 
Manor on the Hudson, who was said to have 
been rescued after the Battle of the 
Cedars, on the St. Lawrence River in 
1776; Lieut. Jonathan Maynard, a prom- 
inent resident of Framingham, Mass., on 
May 30, 1778; and Major Wood, at the 
Battle of Minisink in 1779. 

Colonel John McKinstry was a member of 
Hudson Lodge No. 13, New York. He was a 



82 



veteran of the French War, and at the 
commencement of the American Revolution 
joined the American Army. He saw action 
in many of the battles that took place in 
the Northern Areas. After being rescued 
from death by Brant, at the Battle of the 
Cedars, he and Brant became very close 
friends for the remainder of their lives. 
Whenever Brant was in the vicinity of the 
home of Col. McKinstry, he never failed 
to visit the friend whose life he had 
saved. In 1805, Bro. Brant and Col. 
McKinstry visited the Hudson Masonic 
Lodge, where Brother Brant was handsomely 
received . 

The war had been a long, bloody, and 
for the British, a futile War, and it was 
finally settled with the Treaty of 
Versailles, being signed in 1783 in 
Paris. The British lost the Thirteen 
Colonies, and America was an Independent 
Nation. The lands of the Iroquois 
Confederacy had been the location of a 
considerable amount of the hostilities 
and these lands were left in American 
hands, and in a very desolate state. 

It was at this time that the Loyalists 
of the Iroquois Confederacy decided to 
move to Canada, where the British 
Governor, Sir Frederick Haldimand, had 
arranged with the British Government to 
provide lands for them. Some settled in 
the Bay of Quinte area under the leader- 
ship of Desoronto, but the majority of 
them followed Brant, to settle on 
reserved lands along the wooded banks, on 
both sides of the Grand River. These 
lands were granted to the Indians in 
recognition of the service that they had 



83 



given to the British cause during the 
wars in North America. 

With the religious teachings that 
Joseph Brant had received at Moor's 
School, he gave great assistance to 
various missionaries, and at one time he 
acted as an interpreter to one named Rev. 
Jeffrey Smith. Later he assisted Rev. 
Steward, who had been sent out in 1770 by 
the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel to preach among the Mohawks, in 
translating the Acts of the Apostles into 
the Mohawk tongue. 

A very short distance down river from 
the present City of Brantford, a new 
Indian Village began to take form under 
Brother Brant's direction and encourage- 
ment. H'e re the famous St. Paul's, Her 
Majesty's Chapel of the Mohawks, was 
built in 1785, under contract with two 
United Empire Loyalists, John Smith and 
John Thomas. Timber for this Chapel was 
cut in the neighborhood of the present 
Town of Paris, and was floated down the 
Grand River to the Mohawk Village. This 
Chapel is the oldest Protestant place of 
worship in Ontario, and it still stands 
on Mohawk Street in Brantford. 



Brother Brant and his family lived in a 
frame house not far to the south from the 
Church, and nearby were clustered about 
twenty other log or frame houses. A saw 
mill, a grist mill, a school, and other 
buildings were shortly afterwards 
erected in this newly established Indian 
Village. 

The Village was named Mohawk Castle or 
Mohawk Village, and was something like 

84 



the outpost of civilization at that time, 
to be passed through by those pioneers 
who first settled in the inland portions 
of the Province. From here there was an 
ancient Indian foot trail, known as the 
Detroit Path, leading into the wilderness 
and which became the main route into the 
newly inhabited Home and Western Dis- 
tricts, now known as Brant, Oxford, 
Middlesex and Wellington Counties. 

Among the great treasures of the 
Iroquois Confederacy, and which were 
buried for ten years on the farm of Boyd 
Hunter, overlooking the Mohawk River, 
were the Bible, and Silver Communion 
Service given by Queen Anne in 1712 to 
•Her Majesty's Chapel of the Mohawks*. 
These lay hidden during hostilities in 
New York State, but were brought to 
Canada by the Indian Loyalists - the 
Bible and four pieces of the Silver were 
taken to Brantford, while the remaining 
pieces of Silver were taken to Desoronto, 
on the north shore of Lake Ontario. 

Records show that Brant was present at 
Barton Lodge //ID (now //6, Hamilton) at 
its organizational meeting on January 31, 
1796. Brant was not noted as a visitor, 
and was not included as one of the 
Charter Members. He did not sign the 
'Rules and Regulations', nor is it 
recorded that he revisited the Lodge at 
any time between 1796 and 1803. There is 
no record of Brant ever being 'fined' as 
others were, for non-attendance, thus it 
appears that he must have occupied a very 
privileged position in that Lodge. 

R.W.Bro. William Jarvis was the 
Provincial Grand Master of Upper Canada, 



85 



and in 1797 there were twelve lodges on 
the roll of this First Provincial Grand 
Lodge of Upper Canada. One of these was 
Lodge No. 11, at Mohawk Village, which 
was Warranted in 1797 by R.W.Bro. Jarvis. 
The first Master of this newly Warranted 
Lodge //ll was none other than Worshipful 
Brother Joseph Brant, the Senior Warden 
was Brother Thomas Horner, and the Junior 
Warden was Brother William Kennedy Smith. 

It appears as if Lodge /Ml, for some 
unknown reason, later was moved to 
Burford, and while at this new location 
it joined with five other Lodges in 
forming the Schismatic Grand Lodge of 
Ni agara • 

In 1822, the Second Provincial Grand 
Lodge of Upper Canada was formed, and all 
of the Lodges that were then under the 
government of the Schismatic Grand Lodge 
of Niagara, including Lodge //ll, were 
received into the newly-formed Grand 
Lodge without questions, which formed 
solidity among Masons in Upper Canada. 

King George III granted 3,450 acres of 
land at the western end of Lake Ontario 
and known as 'Wellington Square* (now 
Burlington) to Joseph Brant, and it was 
at this location that Brant built a large 
two-story white frame house, and where he 
lived out the closing years of his life 
in the style of a colonial English 
Country gentleman. 

In 1937 a replica of the original house 
in Burlington, was erected on the same 
site, and opened two, years later as the 
Joseph Brant Museum to honour the memory 
of Burlington's first citizen. 



86 



Brant died on November 24, 1807, and 
was buried in St. Luke's Churchyard, 
Burlington. Forty-three years later, his 
remains were exhumed and removed to 
Brantford to be re-interred beside those 
of his Son, John, in a stone tomb, in the 
little Churchyard adjoining the Mohawk 
Chapel, with which he had been so closely 
associated in his earlier years. 

This re-interment of Joseph Brant was 
carried out with no small degree of 
pageantry. According to local tradition, 
the coffin had been carried from Welling- 
ton Square to Brantford by relays of 
Indians. Many people assembled and went 
from Brantford for the ceremony, and 
Brantford members of the Masonic Order 
took part in the ceremony. Addresses were 
delivered by Rev. a. Nelles, Rev. P. 
Jones, Sir A. McNab, J.D. Thornburn, and 
other well-known figures of the day. 
After the speeches were concluded, the 
interment took place and three volleys 
were fired over the grave of the brave, 
and faithful Indian Soldier, Joseph 
Brant . 



came 



Thus Joseph Brant, Thayendanegea, ^-...^ 
to his final resting place. As a youth he 
had attracted the most favorable notice 
from British officials and was destined 
to play an outstanding part in the 
fortunes of the British Empire in 
America. For many years, he was inti- 
mately associated with the highest 
governing classes, among whom he found 
many an occasion to exercise his skill 
and diplomatic gifts. With his death 
ended a distinguished career as a 
warrior, statesman, and diplomat, who 



87 



practiced the principles of valour in 
warfare, tolerance and devotion to his 
people and to the British Crown. 

Brant's honour and fame can be to some 
extent attributed to the education and 
training, both as an administrator and as 
a soldier, which he received through and 
from Sir William Johnson during the years 
that they worked together. 

Soon after the death of Joseph Brant, 
his wife returned to the Mohawk Village 
on the Grand River. She died at Brantford 
on November 24, 1837, exactly thirty 
years after her husband. 

Brant died after witnessing one of the 
most crucial periods in North American 
History, and he helped in his own way to 
shape the destiny of Ontario. 

The focal point of the lovely Victoria 
Park in Brantford, is a monument in 
memory of this great Indian, and whose 
honour the City of Brantford was named. 
The municipality was originally estab- 
lished at Brant's Ford on the Grand 
River, and hence the name at its present 
location. The bronze figure on the top of 
this monument is of Joseph Brant, while 
figures on the sides of the monument are 
representative of the Indians of the 
Iroquois Confederacy. 

Upon Brant's death in 1807, his Masonic 
Apron was given to his Son, John, and on 
the death of John it was bequeathed to 
Joseph Brant's son-in-law, William 
Johnston Kerr, the husband of Elizabeth. 
Colonel Kerr became a member of Barton 
Lodge and in 1842 became its Worshipful 



88 



Master. His friend, Hamilton O'Reilly 
also became a member of Barton Lodge, and 
he was bequeathed Brant's Apron upon 
Kerr's death. The Apron remained in the 
O'Reilly family until 1964 when it was 
donated to the Barton Lodge. At the 
1,625th Regular Meeting of Barton Lodge 
No. 6, Hamilton, on October 20, 1971, the 
Barton Lodge presented the Brant Apron to 
the Joseph Brant Museum on 'Permanent 
Loan ' • 

The Apron due to its age required some 
restoration work, and this was accom- 
plished by the Art Conservation Depart- 
ment of Queen's University, Kingston, 
Ontario, during the School Term 1984- 
1985. 

In 1916, the twenty-third Masonic 
District was formed in the Grand Lodge of 
Canada in the Province of Ontario. It was 
formed because the districts were 
becoming so large, that the District 
Deputy Grand Masters were reporting that 
they could not satisfactorily serve them 
under their present very large number of 
lodge s • 



This new Masonic District //23 took 
name of Brant, because it seemed a m 
logical name at the time. Joseph Bra 
or Thay endanegea , was the first recor 
native Mason in this area, and he was 
first Worshipful Master of Masonic Lo 
//ll, at Mohawk Village, near the pres 
City of Brantford, in the Township 
Brantford, and in the County of Brant, 
was in 1923 that all of the Districts 
the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Provi 
of Ontario, had the number dropped f 



the 

o s t 

nt , 

ded 

the 

dge 

en t 

of 

It 

i n 

nee 

r om 



89 



their names, and thereafter they were 
listed in alphabetic order. 

The first Masonic Lodge constituted in 
the City of Brantford carried the name of 
Brant - Brant Lodge No. 45. This Lodge 
was originally constituted in 1853 as 
//323 under the jurisdiction of the Grand 
Lodge of Ireland. Upon the formation of 
the Grand Lodge of Canada on October 10, 
1855, it was given the number ^22', but 
when the present Grand Lodge had com- 
pleted its organizational procedures on 
July 14, 1858, all Lodges that were then 
under its jurisdiction were renumbered 
according to their seniority, and Brant 
Lodge then received the number ^45*, 
which it retains today. 

Many people over the years have visited 
the grave of Joseph Brant, and a number 
of these, wishing a souvenir, would chip 
pieces from the cement vault in which the 
body of Joseph Brant was enclosed. In 
order to stop this vandalism, an iron 
fence was erected around the outside of 
the vault. Over a period of time the 
inscription on the vault became less 
visible, and in order to preserve the 
information, the Masonic Foundation of 
Ontario had a bronze plaque made, with a 
duplication on it of the faded inscrip- 
tion on the vault. This was erected on 
the side of the iron fence for the 
information of the general public of the 
great person who was interred there. 

The Masonic Foundation of Ontario also 
donated 100 Bibles and 100 Prayer Books 
for use in the historic church. 



90 



In 1984, a group of Masons from the 
Brant Masonic District formed a Committee 
to work within the District to acquire 
funds for the obtaining and installing of 
an organ in St. Paul's, Her Majesty's 
Chapel of the Mohawks, at Brantford. The 
fund-raising was completed, and the organ 
was paid for and was installed during 
July, 1986, at a cost of $20,800. 

In these various ways it is hoped that 
the public would recognize the close 
affiliation of the Indians, and espec- 
ially Worshipful Brother Joseph Brant, 
with the Principles of the Masonic Order. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Brandon, William, "The American Heritage 
Book of Indians", Dell Publishing 
Co., Inc., New York, U.S.A., 1961. 

Brantford Expositor, "Joseph Brant- 
Early Masonic Lodge Master", Brant- 
ford, Ontario. Issue of 26 July, 
1974. 

Brett, Gerard, "The Life and Masonic 
Career of Joseph Brant", C.M.R.A., 
Bulletin No. 15, 1953. 

Dawe, Brian, "Old Oxford Is Wide Awake", 
John Deyell Co., Publishers, Ontario, 
1980. 

Dougherty, E.F., "Loyalist Masons of the 
Mohawk Valley", C.M.R.A., Bulletin 
No. 73, 1963. 

Dunham, Mabel, "Grand River", T.H. Best 



91 



Printing Co., Ltd., Toronto, for 
McClelland & Stewart Limited, 1943. 

Fraser, Mary M., "Joseph Brant, Thayen- 
danegea". Published by the Board of 
Management of the Joseph Brant 
Museum, Burlington, in 1969, and 
printed by the Halton Press Limited, 
Burlington, Ontario. 

Globe and Mail, "Museum Relics Reminders 
of Indian Missionary Who Ended Life 
As Colonial Country Gentleman", 
Toronto, Ontario. Issue of 24 
November, 1979. 

Haldimand Press, "Joseph Brant", by 
Cheryl MacDonald, Hagersville, 
Ontario. Issue of 19 January, 1984. 

Johnston, Charles M., "The Valley of the 
Six Nations", University of Toronto 
Press, Toronto, Ontario, 1964. 

Johnston, Charles M., "Brant County, A 
History, 1784 - 1945", Oxford Uni- 
versity Press, Toronto, Ont . , 1967. 

Josephy, Alvin M. Jr., "The Indian 
Heritage of America, Publisher- 
Alfred A. Knopf, New York, U.S.A., 
1969. 

Monture, Ethel Brant, "Canadian Portraits 
of Famous Indians", Publisher - Clark 
Irwin & Co., Ltd., Toronto, 1960. 



Pe t r i e , 



A. Roy, "The Canadians - Joseph 

Brant", Printed by Fitzhenry & 

Whiteside Ltd., 150 Lesmill Road, Don 

Mills, Ontario, M3B 2T5, 1978. 



92 



Pos, Jacob (Jack), "Joseph Brant- 
Thayendanegea", Paper presented at 
the special dedication service of the 
Joseph Brant's Apron at Burlington, 
Ontario, 29 May, 1986. 

Robinson, Helen Caister, "Joseph Brant- 
A Man For His People", Printed by 
Longman Canada Limited, Don Mills, 
Ontario , 197 1. 

"Six Nations Indians - Yesterday and 
Today, 1867-1942", A Souvenir book 
published by the Six Nations Agricul- 
tural Society to commemorate the 
Diamond Anniversary of the organi- 
zation. William Smith was its 
President at the time of its publi- 
cation. The article on page 34, 
titled "Captain Joseph Brant 
( Thay endanegea ) ; Warrier, Statesman, 
and Diplomat", which was written by 
Norman E. Lickers, B.A. 

Stone, William L., "Life of Joseph Brant 
- Thayendanegea" (Books I & II), 
Publisher Alexander V. Blake, New 
York, 1838. Re-Printed by Kraus 
Reprint Co., New York, 1969. 

Talman, James J., "Early Freemasonry in 
Ontario", C.M.R.A., Bulletin No. 22, 
1954. 

Talman, James J., Historical Sketch to 
Commemorate the S e s q u i -Cen t e na r y of 
Freemasonry in the Niagara District 
1792-1942. Hamilton, Ontario, 1942. 

"Whence Come We?", Edited by the Special 
Committee on the History: Wallace 
McLeod, Chairman, Published by 



93 



Authority of the Grand Master, 
Masonic Holdings, Hamilton, Ontario, 
L8N 3C9, 1980. 



94 



REVIEWS OF PAPER PRESENTED TO 
THE HERITAGE LODGE 

March 11th, 1987 

by 

Bro. William W. Mitchell 

titled 

Worshipful Brother Joseph Brant 

(Thayendanegea) 



FIRST REVIEW - was prepared by W.Bro. 
Malcolm Montgomery, Past Master of Zeta 
Lodge No. 410, Toronto District 7. 

Worshipful Master and Brethren: 

It is entirely appropriate that Bro. 
William W. Mitchell should produce his 
paper on Worshipful Brother Joseph Brant 
and Brant^s Masonic Career. The last 
paper written on this subject was that of 
W.Bro. Dr. Gerard Brett "The Life and 
Masonic Career of Joseph Brant" delivered 
at Toronto on May 19, 1953 (The Papers of 
The Canadian Masonic Research Associa- 
tion, The Heritage Lodge No. 730, 1986 pp 
273-289). Much scholarship and research 
has been done since Dr. Brett has 
delivered his paper and there was thus a 
need to update and revise the assessment 
of Joseph Brant based on information 
which has come to light since that time. 

In the overall picture, Bro. Mitchell's 
paper is a useful addition to the 
knowledge which we have with reference to 
Joseph Brant but respectfully the paper 
needs revision. Various errors abound 
which should have been corrected prior to 
submission. For example, at page 2, Sir 
William Johnson is introduced as having 

95 



been a major influence upon Brant in his 
lifetime. Twice following this reference 
Sir William becomes "Sir Johnson" which 
is unacceptable English usage. The need 
for further revision is demonstrated in 
several places. "Albert" Tice is des- 
cribed as entering St. Patrick's Lodge at 
Johnstown, New York, on May 23, 1766. 
Bro. Mitchell possibly intended that this 
should be Gilbert Tice who was the Mason 
in question and who accompanied Brant to 
England in 1776. Tice was an innkeeper at 
Johnstown and a tenant and acquaintance 
of Sir William Johnson. Gil be r t Tice is 
further misdescribed as "Albert" later in 
the paper. "SCoharie" by a typographical 
error "Scnoharie", and on the same page 
Versailles is mistyped as "Versailies". 



Finally, in the respectful submission 
of this reviewer, our contributors should 
be encouraged in the use of notes in 
which authorities supporting factual 
information should be cited. In as much 
as Bro. Mitchell has recited certain 
factual information which diverges from 
certain accepted authorities, the reader 
is unable to ascertain the writer's 
authorities and is thus put into a 
quandary as to whether or not to accept 
this type of variance as being well 
founded. While a Bibliography is attached 
to the paper, it is impossible to connect 
the sources reflected there to the main 
body of the work. 



Bro. Mitchell states categorically that 
"Sir William Johnson's third wife was 
Joseph Brant's sister Molly, and they 
were married in 1760". Surely, here Bro. 
Mitchell is being too charitable to Molly 



Brant 



None of Sir William 



major 



96 



biographers, commencing with William L. 
Stone in 1864 to James Thomas Flexner in 
1959 advanced Molly Brant to the position 
of legal wife. Stone says that "... 
Johnson employed as his housekeeper, Mary 
Brant ... by whom he has several chil- 
dren." Flexner refers to her as Johnson's 
"first formal Indian wife", but then goes 
on later to say that they were not 
married "according to the white man's 
rites ...". In his last will and testa- 
ment, written a few months prior to his 
death in 1774, Sir William described 
Molly Brant as "my present housekeeper", 
and the children which he had sired by 
Mary Brant as "natural". In 1779 Mary 
Brant's biographer Professor Barbara 
Graymont described the relationship as a 
"liaison" in the Dictionary Of Canadian 
B i ogr aphy Vol. IV. The final word on the 
matter was rendered definitively both 
historically and judicially by Hon. Mr. 
Justice William Renwick Riddell in an 
article published in 1922 in Ontario 
Historical Society Papers and Records 
(Vol. 19, pp 147-157) entitled "Was Molly 
Brant Married?'*. After an exhaustive 
review of fact and law, Riddell J. 
answered the question in the negative. 
The only recent support for a marriage is 
the s em i - f i c t i ona 1 Mistress Molly, The 
Brown Lady; Portrait of Molly Brant by 
Helen Caistor Robinson, Dundurn Press, 
1980. 

Further questions arise with reference 
to Brant's education. There is no doubt 
that Sir William sent Joseph to Moor's 
Indian Charity School at Lebanon, 
Connecticut. Brant's last biographer 
Isabel Thompson Kelsay published in 1984 
after thirty years of research states 



97 



that Johnson received a letter from the 
headmaster Rev. Eleazar Wheelock in 1761 
that Wheelock had received a grant for 
the support of "three boys of the Six 
Nations" and requesting Sir William to 
make the nominations. Sir William sent 
three Mohawk boys including Joseph Brant. 



The school which Wheelock had founded 
at Lebanon was primarily established to 
convert and educate 
missionaries and 

tribes. Brant was employed to 
Kirkland the Mohawk Ian 
Kirkland wished to be 



Indians 
teachers for 



to be 
their 
teach 
since 
to the 
later 



g u a g e 
a missionary 
Six Nations Indians, which he j.ob%=<. 
became. Wheelock noted that on his 
arrival. Brant "could speak only a few 
words of English". This seems to deny any 
previous education by Joseph Brant. 
Further, it would have been extremely 
unusual for a "settlers school" to have 
been started in Canajoharie. Canajoharie 
on the Mohawk river was in the main area 
of Mohawk village settlement and not 
European settlement. 



Governor William Tryon in his report on 
the state of the Province of New York in 
1774 reflected that 221 Mohawks were 
living there and thus the area had not 
been open to European settlement. Thus we 
are anxious to know of Bro. Mitchell's 
authority for his conclusion that Brant 
attended a settlers school there. We must 
also remember that the majority of the 
children of colonial New York never saw 
the inside of a schoolhouse and that Sir 
William opened the first school in Tryon 
county at Johnstown in 1769. 



98 



We are also curious about the source of 
Bro. Mitchell's conclusion that Sir 
William Johnson was made an Indian Chief. 
Johnson's biographer, J.T. Flexner 
describes it as "an adoption ceremony". 
Creation of a chief ship would have been 
unlikely at the time since the later 
custom of the creation of honorary 
chiefships had not yet commenced. 

Another point which calls for authority 
is the submission that Sir William's son- 
in-law, Guy Johnson, and Joseph Brant 
attended the same school. Little is known 
about the early life of Guy Johnson. His 
biographer Professor Jonathon G. Rossie 
in Volume IV of Dictionary of Canadian 
Biography simply mentions that Guy 
Johnson may have been the midshipman who 
served under that name in H.M.S. Fury in 
1755 and that although young, he served 
through the Seven Years War as an officer 
in the Provincial Forces. He was thought 
to be born about 1740 which would have 
made him about two years older than 
Joseph Brant who was about eighteen when 
he went to school in 1761. It seems 
highly improbable that Guy Johnson, after 
being a company commander under Lord 
Amherst in 1759 and 1760 should have gone 
to school at age twenty-one in 1761 

pecially since he was secretary -»-- 



especially since he was secretary in th 
Indian Department that year and rose to 
deputy-agent in 1763. This is especiall 
true since Moor's was a Char i t y school. 



in the 
a 

y 



Insofar as the set of Communion Plate, 
which was given to the Mohawks in 1712 by 
Queen Anne, is concerned, Bro. Mitchell 
describes four pieces of the silver taken 
to Brantford and the remaining two were 
taken to Deseronto. It is perhaps being 



99 



overly critical to note that the set was 
divided four to Brantford and three to 
Deseronto. This is supported by John 
Wolfe Lydekker, The Faithful Mohawks , 
Cambridge University Press, 1938, page 
185. This reviewer has taken communion 
and inspected the silver which numbers 
three pieces at the chapel on the 
Tyendinaga Indian Reserve. All are 
engraved with the royal cipher and the 
coat -of -arms . 

The story about King George III 
presenting Brant with his Masonic apron 
should soon be laid to rest. It would 
seem that this fable gained currency when 
it was mentioned by Bro. John Ross 
Robertson in his History of Freemasonry 
in Canada published in 1900. Robertson 
stated it to be a fact but Brant's most 
recent biographer, Isabel Thompson 
Kelsay, was more circumspect. She added 
"is said" by way of qualification since 
Robertson gave no foundation whatsoever 
for the statement. The story of the 
presentation of the masonic apron to 
Joseph Brant by King George III is made 
even more unlikely because of the fact 
that George III had no connection with 
Freemasonry nor was he a member. This is 
confirmed by Bernard E. Jones, Freemasons 
Guide and Compendium , Harrap, London, 
1950. 

Bro. Mitchell is slightly in error with 
reference to Brant's portrait by Romney. 
The portrait of Brant by Romney was 
apparently done at the request of the 
Earl of Warwick, so Kelsay reports. The 
portrait hung in Warwick Castle for many 
years prior to finding its way to the 
National Gallery of Canada. James Boswell 



100 



did, indeed have in his possession a 
drawing of Brant from which an engraving 
was made and which engraving appeared 
with Boswell's article on Brant which 
appeared in the London Magazine , July, 
1776, page 339. The engraving is clearly 
not from the Romney portrait and depicts 
a rather wild-eyed savage, holding a 
knife, upturned in his right hand. It is 
obviously the work of a second-rate 
artist. This drawing has apparently been 
lost and is discussed in the Yale 
Editions of the Boswell Papers, Bo s we 1 1 : 
The Ominous years 1774 - 1776 edited by 
Charles Rysiamn and Frederick A. Pottle. 

We have observed above that much has 
been written about the subject since Dr. 
Brett brought out his paper in 1953. 
Unfortunately Bro. Mitchell does not 
include these works in his Bibliography. 
The leading authorities are Isabel 
Thompson Kelsay, Joseph Brant 1743-1807: 
Man of Two Worlds , 1984; Barbara 
Graymont, The Iroquois in the American 
Revolution , 1972; James Thomas Flexner, 
Mohawk Baronet , 1959; and the biographies 
of Molly Brant, Joseph Brant, Sir William 
Johnson and Guy Johnson contained in the 
Dictionary of Canadian Biography Vols. IV 
and V, published in 1979 and 1983 
respectively. Insofar as Brant's masonic 
career in Canada is concerned, Bro. 
Mitchell would have found Norman 
Macdonald, The Barton Lodge 1795-1945 , 
Ryerson 1945, and George E. Mason, 
Historical Sketch of The Barton Lodge , 
1895, to be invaluable. Both of these 
volumes are in the Library of the Grand 
Lodge at Hamilton. 



101 



Brother Mitchell has filled in many 
historical gaps following Brant's arrival 
in Ontario in 1784 including an updated 
status report on the Brant Museum at 
Burlington and her Majesty's Chapel of 
the Mohawks at Brantford. This is an area 
largely left uncovered by Dr. Brett in 
1953, Brother Mitchell is obviously very 
familiar with Brantford and Burlington 
and should be commended for his contri- 
bution to masonic knowledge in that 
regard. Brother Mitchell is undoubtedly 
aware of the fact that Joseph Brant's 
cuirass or silver gorget is in the 
possession of the Joseph Brant Museum at 
Burlington. On its face is engraved 'the 
Royal Cipher G.R. and the Royal Coat of 
Arms, with decorative arrangements of 
British and Indian instruments of battle 
on the left and right. Inscribed on the 
back are the words "The Gift of a Friend 
to Capt. Brant". This gorget was auct- 
ioned by Sotheby & Co.» the famous 
English auctioneers at The Robert Simpson 
Co. Ltd., at Toronto on May 29th, 1968 
for the sum of $13,000.00. Even they were 
hinting that the gorget was a gift of 
King George III. 

In writing this paper, Bro. Mitchell 
has grasped the nettle of a complex and 
controversial topic. He deserves our 
gr at i t ude . 

Malcolm Montgomery 



SECOND REVIEW - Prepared by R.W.Bro. 
Wallace E. McLeod, Charter Member of The 
Heritage Lodge. 



102 



Worshipful Master and Brethren: 

It is proper to begin by thanking Bro. 
Mitchell for his useful contribution. He 
does well to remind us of this notable 
Freemason; he provides enough background 
to help us understand Brant's world a bit 
better, and he tells us something of his 
legacy. Personally I should have welcomed 
more details about his activities during 
the American Rebellion, particularly at 
Oriskany and Cherry Valley. Because of 
such exploits as these, our American 
neighbors harbour an irrational hostility 
towards him, and lay various atrocities 
at his door, as I have found out to my 
cost. 

I call attention to a few points of 
detail. Bro. Mitchell sets Brant's birth 
on 24 November, 1742, and his death on 29 
November, 1807; the latter is evidently a 
misprint for 24 November, as we learn 
from the death-notice of his widow. Yet 
it hardly seems likely that he died on 
his birthday. Barbara Graymont, in her 
life of Thay endanegea in the D i c t i onar y 
of Canadian Biography , volume 5 (1983), 
page 803, calculates that he was probably 
born in March 1742. Further, she inter- 
prets his name as "he set or places 
together two bets.'* Bro. Mitchell twice 
speaks of Albert Tice; this is a slip for 
"Gilbert Tice", for whom Bro. E.F. 
Dougherty provides a short biographical 
notice in the Papers of the CMRA , No. 73 
(1963), on page 1255 of the reprint. 
Brant's Masonic certificate still 
survives; it is kept in the Department of 
Ethnology of the Royal Ontario Museum in 
Toronto, where it carries the catalogue 
number 911.3.87. It might have been worth 



103 



noting that, according to Lane's Ma s on i c 
Records » Brant's mother lodge, at Falcon 
in London, is to be identified with 
Hiram's Cliftonian Lodge No. 417 on the 
Register of the Moderns; it existed only 
from 1771 to 1782. Bro. Mitchell repeats 
John Ross Robertson's story that King 
George III presented Brant with his 
Masonic apron. Bro. T.O. Haunch, the 
former Librarian and Curator of the 
Freemason's Hall in London, has expressed 
his skepticism by writing, "George III 
was not a Freemason and as far as I am 
aware he had no connection with the 
Order . " 

Bro. Mitchell mentions that Brant "sat 
at Romney" for the portrait that now 
hangs in the National Gallery of Canada 
in Ottawa; not all his audience may 
realize from this that the picture was 
painted by the artist George Romney 
( 1734-1802) . 

The story of the rescue of Colonel 
McKinstry at the Battle of the Cedars is 
probably apocryphal; the encounter took 
place about 20 May, 1776, and on that 
date Brant was apparently still in 
England; see Bro. Gerard Brett's dis- 
cussion in the Papers of the CMRA , No. 15 
(1953), on page 277 of the collected 
edit ion . 

Bro. Mitchell says that Brant's lodge 
in Upper Canada, No. 11 on the Register 
of the First Provincial Grand Lodge, was 
received into the Second Provincial Grand 
Lodge in 1822; I had not thought it 
lasted so long, and should welcome 
further information. 



104 



And finally, as a Director of the 
Masonic Foundation of Ontario, I must 
note that the Foundation was heavily 



involved in Brant District 



recent 



project to install an organ in the Chapel 
of the Mohawks, 

These are all details, and hardly 
detract from Bro. Mitchell's achievement. 

Wallace McLeod 



THIRD REVIEW - Presented by R.W.Bro. Jack 
Pos, Charter Member and first Worshipful 
Master of The Heritage Lodge. 

Worshipful Master and Brethren: 



We are grateful to Brother Mitchell for 
bringing to us this evening the results 
of his researches on Joseph Brant, a war 
chief of the Six Nations Confederacy, who 
supported the ^Crown' during the American 
Revolution, as well as a brief sketch of 
his masonic career. 

Brother Mitchell's account of the Brant 
story begins in the second quarter of the 
18th century, on "the prized hunting 
lands of the Iroquois'*. Actually, the 
Ohio valley had long been the favorite 
hunting-ground for many Indian Tribes. 
For a whole century, Delaware, Shawnee, 
Wyandot and the Six Nations (Mohawks, 
Cayugas, Senecas, Oneidas, Onondagas and 
Tuscaroras) had contended for the 
territory; and it was not until the 
Iroquois Confederacy, which united the 
five tribes into a strong and powerful 
Nation (the Tuscaroras, as the sixth 

105 



tribe joined later in 1715), and which 
gained for them the prized hunting lands. 
I mention this because there is some 
doubt as to the actual parentage of 
Joseph Brant . 



As for his mother, she may have been a 
Mohawk but this is by no means certain. 
It has been suggested (j)****^ that she 
could have been a damsel of the Shawnee 
race who had left the wigwams of her 
people to move in with the Mohawks. 



As for Brant's father, it is generally 
agreed that he was a full-blooded Mohawk 
and a chief of the Wolf clan. Some 
Historians (2,3,4 and 5), say his name 
was T e h o ~ w a g h - w e n - g a r a g h - k w i n , Chief 
Nikkus or Old Brant, son of Sa G a. Yeath 
Qua Pieth Tow (Christianized Brant), one 
of the four ^Sachems' of the Five Nations 
Confederacy that, along with several 
Colonial Officials, went to England in 
1710 to attempt to convince Queen Anne 
and her Government to increase dramatic- 
ally its military support to the thirteen 
colonies against the French (5). 

It was also during this visit, that the 
four Indian Chiefs asked Queen Anne to 
send missionaries to the Indian country. 
Government funds were promised to build a 
chapel, house, and fort for the Mohawks. 

Among the gifts bestowed by the Queen 
were a handsome bible and a seven piece 
set of communion silver plate inscribed 



Bracketed numbers refer to 
numbered ^References' listed at the 
conclusion of this review. 



106 



with the royal cipher and coat of arms. 
Three of these pieces, the flagon, 
chalice and paten, are now in the 
possession of the Band Council, Mohawks 
of the Bay of Quinte, Deseronto, Ontario. 
These were examined personally with the 
kind permission of Chief Melville Hill, 
the current custodian. Mohawk Sunday is 
the Sunday closest to May 22nd, the 
anniversary of the arrival of the Mohawk 
Indians at Deseronto in 1784; when the 
Mohawks re-enact the landing of their 
ancestors. They carry a birch bark canoe 
from the shore along with the Queen Anne 
Silver, overturn the canoe and place the 
Communion Service on it in front of a 
cairn which marks the spot of the first 
landing. There are prayers of thanks- 
giving and Hymns in the Mohawk Language. 
Afterwards a Communion Service is held in 
Christ Church, a historic one as it was 
built in 1843, in which the Queen Anne 
Silver is used at least three times a 
year: Christmas, Easter and Mohawk 
Sunday . 

The other four pieces are in the 
possession of the Band Council, Mohawks 
of the Six Nations Reserve, Osweken, 
Ontario. They are stored in a vault and 
only displayed on special occasions; the 
last time being the visit of Queen 
Elizabeth II, to Canada in October, 1977, 
when the four pieces of silver and the 
Bible were taken under police protection 
to Ottawa where they were combined with 
the other three pieces from Deseronto and 
placed on display on the occasion of the 
Queen ' s visit. 

To continue with Joseph's parentage, 
other Historians (6), record that the 



107 



father died while Brant was still an 
infant; and when the mother returned with 
her two children, Mary (Molly) and 
Joseph, to Canajoharie, she married a 
respectable Indian called Carrihogo 
( news - c ar r i e r ) , whose christian name was 
Burnet, or Bernard; but by way of 
contraction he went by the name of 
^Brant*. And as Brother Mitchell has 
noted the lad, who was to become the 
future war chief, was first known by the 
distinctive appellation of ~Brant's 
Joseph' and in the process of time, by 
inversion, ^Joseph Brant'. 

Reference was made to Sir William 
Johnson's third marriage to Molly Brant 
in 1760. While there are records of the 8 
children consummated from this union (two 
boys and six girls), there is no record 
of a christian marriage. Therefore it is 
assumed the two were married by Indian 
Ceremony. The only official record is 
that of his first marriage to Catherine 
Weisenberg, a healthy young Dutch girl he 
purchased for 5 pounds as his house- 
keeper. She bore him three children, John 
(later Sir John Johnson), Nancy (married 
Captain Daniel Claus - first Jr. Warden 



of St 



Patrick 



Lodge), and Mary ( 



married her cousin Col. Guy Johnson- 
first Sr. Warden of St. Patrick's Lodge). 
The wedding ceremony was performed on 
Catherine's death bed in 1744. 

For the next three years. Sir William 
was to become very much pre-occupied with 
hostilities along the northern frontier. 
The strategic outpost at Oswego was being 
attacked frequently by raiding parties of 
Indians from French Canada; the war in 
Northern New York was loosing ground. 



108 



funds were reduced drastically and 
jealousies between the colonies prevented 
any concerted action. 

It was at this time (about 1746)» that 
William Johnson, in need of a companion 
and housekeeper for his home at Fort 
Johnson, and wanting to cement his 
relations more firmly with the Indians, 
took for himself an Indian Princess, the 
niece of the most important chief of the 
Mohawks, old King Hendrick. There is no 
record of a Christian wedding, but most 
Historians agree there must have been an 
Indian Ceremony. There were three 
children by this marriage, William of 
Canajoharle and Caroline & Charlotte 
(both of whom later married English 
Officers). The mother died in child birth 
with the third child. 

Brother Mitchell states "At the age of 
nineteen, and influenced no doubt by Sir 
William Johnson, Brant enrolled in Moor's 
Charity Mission School". This could have 
been substantiated by one of the follow- 
ing references: The date of enrollment 
was August 1st, 1761 (2), there were 
actually three Indian boys registered on 
that day (Joseph, Center and Negyes), and 
i^^^ *. ^ ^Yie Principal, Rev. Dr. E 



according to the Principal, Rev. Ur. E. 
Wheelock, "Two of them were little better 
than naked and could not speak a word of 
English, but the other, being of a family 
of distinction among them, was consider- 
ably clothed Indian fashion and could 
speak a few words of English". 



Further proof can be found in a letter 
(7), dated Nov. 17th, 1761, and written 
by William Johnson to Dr. Wheelock: 



109 



"Rev. Sir, - Yours of the second 
instant I had the pleasure of 
receiving by the hands of Mr. 
Kirkland. I am pleased to find the 
lads I sent have merited your good 
opinion of them. I have given it in 
charge of Joseph (Brant) to speak in 
my name ...". 

There is some controversy concerning 
Joseph Brant's admission into Free- 
masonry, particularly who may have 
influenced his intention, the actual date 
of the ceremony and who presented him 
with his apron (there are no records, in 
the present archives of the United Grand 
Lodge of England, to indicate that Brant 
was ever made a mason) and Brother 
Mitchell does not cite any particular 
reference for his conclusions. 

A number of Masons from North America 
have, at various times, written to the 
United Grand Lodge of England for 
confirmation: 1. W.Bro. William H. 
Graves, Past Master of Hudson Lodge //7 
(Captain John McKinstry was one of the 
Founders), Hudson, New York, Feb. 18, 
1954; 2. Bro. Leroy V. Brant (Great- 
Great - G r e a t Grandson of Joseph Brant), 
1166 Martin Ave., San Jose 26, 
California, May 27th, 1954; 3. W.Bro. 
Henry W. Croteau, Jr., Claverack, New 
York, Aug. 7th, 1967; 4. Murray Killman 
U.E.L., R.R. //I, Caledonia, Ontario, 
March 22nd, 1976; 5. V. W.Bro. J. Pos, 
W.M., The Heritage Lodge No. 730, Guelph, 
Ontario, July, 1975, and again in Aug., 
1979; the common reply (from the Grand 
Lodge of England) to all of these 
inquiries is as follows: 



1 10 



"... official records here contain no 
details of Brant's admission nor of his 
subsequent masonic career if » indeed, he 
had one. The only evidence known to us of 
his connection with the Craft comes from 
a secondary source, J. Ross Robertson's 
History of Freemasonry in Canada , and I 
know from previous correspondence that 
you are well aware of the reference in 
that monumental work. You will know, 
therefore, that in Volume 1, opposite 
page 688 is reproduced the fac-simile of 
the Certificate issued to Brant by the 
premier Grand Lodge of England in 1776 
which records that he was "made a Mason 
and admitted to the Third Degree of 
Masonry in a lodge meeting at "The 
Falcon', Princes Street, Leicester 
Fields, London." This lodge has been 
identified as Hiram's Cliftonian Lodge 
No. 417, constituted in 1771 but erased 
from the Roll eleven years later. No 
records of admissions to this lodge exist 
and so the evidence of the G. L. Cer- 
tificate cannot be verified, nor can 
Brant's date of initiation be estab- 
lished. Robertson erroneously states this 
to have been the 26th April, 1776, but 
this is, in fact, the date of issue of 
the Certificate. 

This unfortunate error has been 
perpetuated by other writers copying 
Robertson, as has his other statement 
that Brant was presented with a masonic 
apron by King George III. Robertson did 
not quote his authority for this assert- 
ion which sounds very much like the sort 
of family legend which is not uncommon. 
George III was not a Freemason and as far 
as I am aware he had no connection with 
the Order in spite of the fact that his 



1 1 1 



father and two brothers were Masons and 
six of his own sons also subsequently 
became members. •••*'• 

T.O. Haunch, 

Librarian and Curator." 



While there may be no records in the 
archives of the Grand Lodge in England to 
substantiate Brant being a Mason, there 
is sufficient other evidence to support 
this belief, as Brother Mitchell has also 
noted. For example. Van Dusen (8) writes 
"It was during this, his first visit to 
England, due, perhaps to the earlier 
influence of his benefactor. Sir William 
Johnson, who had organized St. Patrick's 
Lodge No. 4, at Johnstown, that Chief 
Brant became a member of the Masonic 
fraternity." Also Bro. Mitchell reports 
that "Brant was present at Barton Lodge 
No. 10 (now No. 6, Hamilton), at its 
organizational meeting on January 31st, 
1796." According to Sheppard (9), Barton 
Lodge was Chartered Nov. 20, 1795, and 
the minutes of those early meetings, 
which were kept on loose sheets of paper, 
were lost. The earliest record that now 
exists, is that of the meeting of Jan. 
31st, 1796, which was attended by 12 
members and four visitors. Among the 
members appears the name of "Bro. Capt. 
Brant". Further proof, as Bro. Mitchell 
has noted, are found in reports relating 
to the first Provincial Grand Lodge of 
Upper Canada. 

With reference to the McKinstry affair, 
an article, by J.R. Fawcett Thompson, in 
the January, 1969, issue of The Connoiss- 
eur, a monthly magazine published in 
England, which is titled "Thayendanegea 
the Mohawk and his several 



portraits" , 



1 12 



makes some interesting observations. This 
portion of the article refers to the time 
of Brant's first visit to England and his 
subsequent return to America. "In his 
circumstantial account, Boswell states 
categorically that on the successful 
conclusion of his mission, Thay e ndanegea 
(with Captain Tice) ^sailed for America 
early in May*. It has however been 
alleged that the Chief led 500 Mohawks in 
support of British troops at the scat- 
tered action around the fortified post of 
Les Cedres, on the St. Lawrence River 43 
miles above Montreal - known as The 
Battle of the Cedars - which was fought 
between the 17th and 21st of that month 
and ended the abortive American invasion 
of Canada in 1776. In this engagement, 
497 Americans were captured, among them- 
it is said - being a certain Captain 
John McKinstry. This officer, when about 
to be burnt at the stake by the Mohawks, 
made a masonic sign of distress which was 
seen by T h a y e n d a n e g e a who personally 
intervened and saved the American's life 
by purchasing an ox which was roasted in 

his stead There is, however, an 

insuperable datal objection to this 
melodramatic rescue having been effected 
at The Battle of the Cedars between the 
17th and 21st May. If Boswell's date for 
the departure from England, supported by 
the evidence of Romney's diary (the 
Artist who painted Brant's portrait) and 
that of the Chief's Grand Lodge Cer- 
tificate be accepted, Thay endanegea could 
not have been present on that date. The 
swiftest passage from Plymouth to the 
coast of New York would alone have taken 
not less than 35 days, and then there was 
an upcountry journey of some 280 miles to 
cover (by canoe - at least 5 or 6 days); 



1 13 



the route to the St. Lawrence and Quebec, 
taking about 40 days could scarcely have 
been quicker. Furthermore, in his well 
documented account of this fighting, 
Gustave Lanctot (10) makes no reference 
to Thayendanegea; although the other 
leaders are named including the Canadian 
De Lorimier who not only recruited the 
Indians to aid the British in this action 
but himself led them (11). Neither does 
Simon Sanguinet mention the Mohawk War 
Chief (12). Furthermore, although 12 men 
from his Company appear in the list of 
American prisoners, McKinstry himself is 
not among the nine Captains named therein 
(13). Thus the inescapable conclusion 
would seem to be, despite Stone's 
assertion that the Chief was there (1), 
that the McKinstry incident must, 
perhaps, have occurred at some later 
encounter during the Campaign." 

Bro. Mitchell goes on to say "It was at 
this time that the Loyalists of the 
Iroquois Confederacy decided to move to 
Canada ..."; then Chief Brant sailed a 
second time for England in an effort to 
obtain compensation for the war losses of 
the Iroquois, landing on the 14th, 
December, 1785. Now 44 and in his prime, 
the Chief was a striking personality, 
combining resourceful diplomacy with his 
military skill. Again the distinguished 
Indian Chief was to sit for a number of 
portraits before returning to his home 
land. I will be discussing several of 
these portraits in the illustrated 
presentation* of W.Bro. Joseph Brant 
which is to follow later this evening. 

I thank The Heritage Lodge for this 
opportunity to review Brother Mitchell's 



1 14 



paper. He is to be commended for an 
interesting insight in the life of Joseph 
Brant » a loyal subject and a good Mason. 

* This "Illustrated Presentation', titled 
Captain Joseph Brant, has been trans- 
ferred to a Video Cassette (VHS) and will 
be available from the Grand Lodge Library 
in Hami 1 ton . 



REFERENCES 

1. Wood, Louis Aubrey, THE WAR CHIEFS OF 

THE SIX NATIONS , a Chrono- 
logical of Joseph Brant, 
Brook and Company, Toronto, 
Ontario , 1915. 

2. Eraser, Mary M., "Joseph Brant, 

Thayendanegea", the Board 
of Management of the Joseph 
Brant Museum, Burlington, 
Ontario , 1 969 . 

3. Flexner, James Thomas, MOHAWK BARONET , 

Sir William Johnson of New 
York, Harper and Brothers 
Publishing, New York, 1959. 

4. Klock, Edgar Jackson, "Joseph Brant- 

Thayendanegea, an Address 
delivered before the 
Herkimer County Historical 
Society, 8 April, 1899. 

5. , "THE FOUR INDIAN KINGS", an 



Exhibition Opened by Her 
Majesty, Queen Elizabeth 
II, at the Public Archives 
of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, 
16 October, 1977. 

1 15 



6. Strachan» the Rev. Dr., (Editor), The 
Christian Register, vol. 1, 
n. 3, 1819, published at 



Kingston, Ontario 



it * -k-kic 



HISTORY OF BRANT COUNTY- 



ONTARIO , Warner, Beers and 
Company, Toronto, Ontario, 
1883. 



8. Van Dusen, Lillian D., "Chief Joseph 
Brant The Iroquois Mason", 
Fonda, New York. 



9 . 



Sheppard, Osborne, A CONCISE HISTORY 
OF FREEMASONRY IN CANADA , 
Compiled and Published by 
the Author, 1912, 1915, and 
1924. (there are a number 
of errorsin this refer- 
ence ) . 
10. Lanctot, Gustave, LE CANADA ET LA 



***** 

.Dr. Strachan, afterwards the 

Honourable and Venerable Archdeacon of 

Toronto, wrote the sketches for the 

Christian Register upon information 

received from the Rev. Dr. Stewart, 

formerly a missionary in the Mohawk 

valley (The same Dr. Stewart who visited 

Brant during the winter of 1771. After 

the death of Brant*s first wife he lived 

with Dr. Stewart at Fort Hunter, where he 

assisted in translating and revising the 

Indian prayer book, a brief history of 

the bible, and a part of the Acts of the 

Apostles, together with an explanation of 

the church catechism in the Mohawk 

tongue • 



1 16 



REVOLUTION AMERICAINE , p . 
161, Montreal, P.Q., 1865. 

11. De Lorimier. MES SERVICES PENDANT LA 

GUERRE AMERICAINE DE 1775 , 
Montreal , P .Q. , 187 1. 

12. Sanguinet, Simon, JOURNAL 1 775-1776. 

13. , NARRATION AUTHENTIQUE DE 

PECHANGE PES PRISONNIERS 

FAIT AUX CEDRES , Montreal, 
P.Q. , 1873 . 



REBUTTAL 

by 

Brother William W. Mitchell 

I thank the reviewers of this paper, 
namely, R.W.Bros. Wallace McLeod and Jack 
Pos, and Bro. Malcolm Montgomery, for the 
time that they have taken to review this 
paper, and the preparing of their 
comment s . 

I have read quite a number of books and 
articles on The Life of Joseph Brant, and 
on the activities of the Six Nations 
Indians, and I have found them to be very 
fascinating, but I have also found that 
the statements made by one author could 
be opposite to the remarks made by 
another author, which makes for very 
controversial subjects. 

There are some items in my paper, that 
my reviewers take exception to, but I 



1 17 



would note for them, the reasoning behind 
some of the statements I have made» and 
from where I acquired this information. I 
have been proceeding further with my 
researching of these topics, and I am 
finding new items all the time from this. 

In this rebuttal I will note each of 
the references to the Reviewer's comments 
as ^Exhibits'. (Bro. Mitchell has sent 
your editor photo-copies of each of the 
Exhibits which were attached to his 
written rebuttal, but these are too 
voluminous to include with these Pro- 
ceed ings ) . 

Firstly, I was not aware of assistance 
that I could have obtained from an 
Editorial Board of The Heritage Lodge No. 
730, as mentioned by Bro. Montgomery in 
his review, or I might have taken full 
advantage of such, and had the typo- 
graphical errors that he mentioned, 
corrected prior to this presentation. I 
do hope that these do not detract too 
much from the subject content of this 
presentation. 

Referring next to Bro. McLeod's review, 
I have the following to report: 

Bro. McLeod questions the date of birth 
and the date of death of Joseph Brant 
that I have noted, to which I submit the 
f o 1 lowing : 

EXHIBIT ^A' :- 

A statement from "Life of Joseph Brant 
- Thayendanegea" (Book I), by William L. 
Stone, and published by Alexander V. 
Blake, New York, 1838, and reprinted by 
Kraus Reprint Co., New York, 1969, pp 3: 



1 18 



"Thayendanegea was born, in the year 
1742, on the banks of the Ohio." 

EXHIBIT ^ B • : - 

From "Six Nations Indians - Yesterday 
and To-day, 1867 - 1942", which was the 
souvenir book published by the Six 
Nations Agricultural Society to commem- 
orate the Diamond Anniversary of that 
organization, on page 34 is printed an 
a r ticle entitled "Captain Joseph Brant 
(Thayendanegea); Warrior, Statesman, and 
Diplomat," which was written by Norman £• 
Lickers, B.A., in which is noted the 
f o 1 lowing : 

"Two centuries have elapsed since the 
birth, on November 24, 1742, of Captain 
Joseph Brant, celebrated Indian Warrior 
and Administrator, whose loyalty to the 
British Empire constitutes a memorial for 
all times." 

It was from these reverences that I 
have noted the birth date of Joseph Brant 
in my presentation. But Barbara Graymont , 
in her Life of Thayendanegea in the 
Dictionary of Canadian Biography , Vol.5, 
1983, pp 103, as noted by Bro. McLeod, 
calculates that Joseph Brant's probable 
date of birth as March, 1742, then there 
are a number of incorrect statements made 
by authors, along with the date quoted by 
me. Even at that Barbara Graymont's 
statement of Joseph Brant's birth as you 
note is a "probable" date only. 

Next, with reference to the death date 
of Joseph Brant, I submit these: 

EXHIBIT ^C ' : - 



1 19 



Taken from "Grand River 



by Mabel 

Dunham, and printed by T.H. Best Printing 
Co. Ltd., Toronto, for McClelland & 
Stewart, Limited - 1943, pp 79: 

"The years wore on without cessation of 
trouble, and he died, in November, 1807, 
before he completed the sixty-fifth year 
of his eventful life." 



EXHIBIT ^D ' : - 

On page 7 of "Joseph Brant - Thayen- 
danegea" , a paper prepared by R.W.Bro. 
ly 19, 1986, and presented at 

_ service of Joseph 

Apron to the Brant Museum at 



Pos , dated M 

a special dedication 

Brant • 



Burlington, on May 29, 1986, is noted 



"Captain Joseph Brant died at 
Wellington Square, November 24, 1807, at 
the age of 64." 

EXHIBIT ^E' : - 

I n "Life of Joseph Brant - Thayen- 
danegea" (Book I), by William L. Stone, 
and published by Alexander V. Blake, New 
York, 1838, and re-printed by Kraus 
Reprint Co., New York, 1969, pp 498: 

"At this place on the 24th of November, 
1807, he closed a life of greater and 
more uninterrupted activity for the space 
of half a century, than has fallen the 
lot of almost any other man whose name 
has been inscribed by the muse of 
history." 

EXHIBIT 'F * : - 

On page 537, of the same book in 
exhibit ^E', is the following statement: 



120 



"This remarkable Indian Princess died 
at Brantford, on the Grand River, on the 
24th day of November, 1837 - thirty years 
to a day, from the death of her husband 
(Joseph Brant)." 

EXHIBIT ^G' :- 

Noted on page 36 of "Six Nations 
Indians - Yesterday and To-day , 18 6 7- 
19 4 2" , A souvenir book published by the 
Six Nations Agricultural Society to 
commemorate the Diamond Anniversary of 
the organization. The historical sketch 
was written by Norman E. Lickers, B.A.: 

"a few years before his death, he moved 

to Burlington. There he built a large 

two-story house and it was in this house 
that he died on November 24, 1807." 

From these ^exhibits' I note the date 
of death of Joseph Brant as November 24, 
1807, and I stand corrected in what I 
noted in my presentation. 

In response to the "Interpretation of 
Joseph Brant's Indian name of Thayen- 
danegea. " 

EXHIBIT ^H' : - 

In the footnote at the bottom of page 
1 , of "Life of Joseph Brant - Thayen- 
danegea" , by William L. Stone (Book I), 
which was published by Alexander V. 
Blake, New York, 1838, and re-printed by 
Kraus Reprint Co., New York, 1969, we 
note : 

"The meaning of the word is, two- 
sticks-of-wood-bound-together , denoting 
strength." 



121 



EXHIBIT ^ I ' : - 

On a publication made in The Haldimand 



Press , January 19, 1984, and distributed 
by the 1984 Canada Wide Feature Service 
Limited, written by Cheryl MacDonald, for 
Ontario's Bicentennial 1784-1984, in the 
third paragraph is noted this: 

"The baby was called Thayendanegea- 
two sticks of wood bound together - a 
Mohawk symbol of strength." 



"The Life and Masonic 



EXHIBIT ^ J • : - 

On page 1 of 

Career of Joseph Brant (Part 2), by 
W.Bro. Gerard Brett, which was read at 
the Ninth Meeting of the Canadian Masonic 
Research Association, held at Toronto, 
Ontario, on May 19, 1953, is as follows: 



"The Indian name meaning 
Sticks . " 



a Bundle of 



These are the reasons for my stating 
the interpretation that is in my paper. 
In this regard, I had not previously 
heard of the interpretation as noted by 
Bro. McLeod, and therefore have accepted 
what I noted above. 

In regard to the name of Brother Tice 
that I have noted in my presentation, I 
do stand corrected in that, instead of 
Albert Tice as noted, it should read 
Gilbert Tice. 

The question of the length of time that 
the Lodge No. 11, existed, I would submit 
the following in response to this: 



EXHIBIT 



K' 



122 



At the time of the Centennial of Brant 
Lodge //45, G.R.C., Brantford, Ontario, 
which was celebrated on June 13, 1953, it 
printed a program and in it was written 
a n Historical Article , prepared by 
R.W.Bro. R.W.E. McFadden, 33 Deg., 
P.D.D.G.M. of Brant Masonic District, and 
Past President of the Brant Historical 
Society, etc., and on page 11 is noted: 

"The records of 1797 show returns from 
this Lodge (No. 11), established at the 
Mohawk Village where the Mohawk Church 
was built in 1785. The Warrant of the 
Lodge was dated 12th February, 1798, 
given by R.W.Bro. William Jarvis to 
Joseph Brant as the Worshipful Master; 
Thomas Horner as Senior Warden; and 
William K. Smith as Junior Warden. The 
Lodge became a travelling Lodge early, as 
the returns of March, 1802, records * No . 
1 1 , Burf ord' . " 

EXHIBIT "L* : - 

This Historical Sketch was almost 
identically printed in the programme for 
the Centennial of Burford Lodge /M06, 
Burford, which was celebrated on October 
19. 1958. 

From these it would appear that Lodge 
No. 11, Burford, was in existence in 
1802. 

EXHIBIT ^M' : - 

Going further on this same subject, at 
the Feast of St. John the Baptist, on 
June 24, 1978, held in conjunction with 
the 175th Anniversary of King Hiram Lodge 
No. 37, Ingersoll, Ontario, and the 
Wilson Masonic District Reception and 
Banquet honouring Most Worshipful Brother 



123 



Robert E. Davies, Grand Master of the 
Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the 
Province of Ontario, on page 6 of the 
programme, is recorded selections taken 
from the minutes of the meetings of King 
Hiram Lodge, and which was prepared by 
W.Bro. Stewart L. Thurtell, and I note: 

"This was the first Lodge Warranted by 
the Schismatic Grand Lodge of Niagara, of 
which irregularity, the local brethren 
were not aware." 

"1803 - 24th June A visitor, Wm. 

Sumner of Burford Lodge No. 11 as 
Secretary Pro Tern. The Installation was 
conducted by Past Masters Thomas Horner 
and D. Parmer, of Burford. Other visitors 
were Bro. Graham, Burford ....." 

Prom this it could be assumed that 
Lodge No. 11, Burford, was in existence 
in 1803, Note also that Thomas Horner is 
a Past Master here, and it was Thomas 
Horner who was the Senior Warden when 
Lodge No. 11 received its Warrant in 
1798. 



EXHIBITS ^K* & "L* :- 

Further on those same programmes , 
another reference is made in regard to 
Lodge No. 11, Burford: 

"During the War of 1812, the American 
General Duncan McArthur, conceived the 
tactical scheme of cutting across the 
Province to take the defenders of the 
Peninsula in the rear. In October, of 

1814, his force swept along the 

Burford Road to the Grand River 

where the Six Nations Indians held the 

invaders McArthur was forced to 

turn south. A member of Lodge No. 11 sped 



124 



on horseback to warn his friends of the 
change of McArthur's plans.'* 

This would seen to reveal that Lodge 
No. 11, Burfordj was in existence in 
1814. 

EXHIBIT "N' :- 

On page 25, of W.Bro. Gerard Brett's 
paper on **The Life and Masonic Career of 
Joseph Brant" (Part 2), which was read at 
the Ninth Meeting of The Canadian Masonic 
Research Association, held at Toronto, 
Ontario, on May 19, 1953, is noted 

"Roll of the Lodges of the Provincial 
Grand Lodge at the time of the First 

Kingston Convention, 1817" 

"No. 11 - Burford, Lodge (Mohawk 

Village) 1796". 

This I believe would give us the 
impression that No. 11, Burford, was 
still in existence in 1817. 

EXHIBIT "O' :- 

And from page 21 of "The Life and 
Masonic Career of Joseph Brant" (Part 2), 
by W.Bro. Gerard Brett, which was read at 
the Ninth meeting of The Canadian Masonic 
Research Association, held at Toronto, 
Ontario, on May 19, 1953: 

"The visit of R. W.Bro. McGillivray 
terminated in September or December, 1822 

Briefly, R. W.Bro. McGillivray did 

arrange the Grand Lodge at York, healed 
the breach with the Schismatic Grand 
Lodge at Niagara, restricted the powers 
of the Provincial Grand Lodge to the 
three primary degrees *' 



125 



EXHIBIT ' P • : - 

From page 4 of "Early Freemasonry in 
Ontario" (Part 2)» by W.Bro. James J. 
Talman» London, Ontario, and which was 
read at the Twelfth meeting of The 
Canadian Masonic Research Association, 
held at Toronto, Ontario, on May 8, 1954, 
is the following: 



"The advent of R.W.Bro. Simon 
McGillivray in 1822, settled the diff- 
erences when, apparently, all the Lodges 
in Upper Canada became enrolled on the 
list of the Second Provincial Grand 
Lodge. The doubtful warrants of those 
Lodges which had received theirs from the 
Schismatic Grand Lodge were not ques- 
tioned and Niagara was again joined with 
the rest of Upper Canada in Masonry. 
Twenty-one Lodges were active at this 
time." 

It was my presumption that if the list 
of Lodges that were in existence in 1817 
at the First Kingston Convention, and 
which contained that of No. 11, Burford, 
then these were the Lodges making up the 
Second Provincial Grand Lodge. 

There was mention made by R.W.Bro. 
McLeod, about the part that the Masonic 
Foundation of Ontario had played in the 
purchasing and installation of the organ 
in the Chapel of the Mohawks at Brant- 
ford . 

At the time of writing this paper, and 
even up to the time of presentation, I 
have not seen any record as to what 
extent the Masonic Foundation was 
involved in this project. I do know that 
as at December 1, 1985, $16,032.69 had 



126 



been raised by Brant Masonic District 
towards the purchase and installation of 
this organ. But this was not the complete 
amount of all the funds collected in the 
District, as I do know of some donations 
being made after that date. This did not 
include any interest that would likely 
have accumulated, as all the funds raised 
by Brant Masonic District were turned 
over directly to the Masonic Foundation 
of Ontario, and it was invested by the 
Foundation for some months before the 
payment was made for the purchase and 
installation of this organ in July, 1986. 
I was aware of the final cost of the 
organ and its installation, but 1 was 
unaware of the final donations from Brant 
Masonic District, nor of the accumulated 
interest, nor of the amount that the 
Masonic Foundation granted towards this 
project. So what I reported in this paper 
was what I was aware of at that time, and 
I would be very interested to know of the 
final statement of the facts of this 
pro jec t . 

Now in response to some of the ques- 
tions raise by Bro. Montgomery, I submit 
the f ol lowing : 



EXHIBITS ^Q * & ^R* : - 

I have the spelling of the Indian 
Village as Schohar ie , but Bro. Montgomery 
has corrected me, and stated that it 
should be spelled Scnoharie ; but upon 
referring to my issue of Rand McNally & 
Co. Atlas Book of Canada, U.S.A., and 
Mexico, I find on the Map Page 63, and 
again on the Index Page 108, for New York 
State, that the spelling made by myself 
in this paper to be correct, and the 
spelling by Brother Montgomery '" 

127 



i s 



incorrect. The correct spelling remains 
as shown Schohar ie . 

Next, with reference to the Third Wife 
of Sir William Johnson - Molly Brant. 
There could be some differences in 
opinion as to the term "Marriage", as 
relating to marriage as we know it in our 
present day, and which is the ritual that 
has been handed down to us through the 
years from our English forefathers 
mainly, and that of the Indian marriage 
customs. The customs are quite different. 
I note the following in this regard: 



EXHIBIT ^ S • : - 

In "Canadian 



Portraits of Famous 



Indians , written by Ethel Brant Monture 
(who I understand is a descendent of 
Molly and Joseph Brant), published by 
Clark Irwin & Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ontario, 
in 1960, on Page 15 we read: 



"William Johnson saw her (Molly), 
for the second time he asked the Moh 
Council for one of their daughters. T 
did not please them. Caroline had li 
for such a short time as his wife and 

her children were motherless 

William Johnson was still the friend 
never criticized their ways or br 
their laws, and so, reluctantly, they 
the wedding arrangements be made." 



and 
awk 
his 
ved 
now 
But 
who 
o k e 
let 



EXHIBIT "T' : - 

And from "The American Heritage Book of 
Indians , by William Brandon, and pub- 
lished by Dell Publishing Co. Inc., New 
York, U.S. A., in 1961, on Page 198 is the 
f ol lowing : 



128 



"The last two of his (William Johnson) 
three wives were Mohawk the last being 
Molly Brant, whose younger brother, 
Joseph, became Johnson's special 
protege." 

EXHIBIT "U • : - 

On page 5 of "Joseph Brant, Thayen- 
danegea , by Mary M. Fraser, published by 
the Board of Management of the Joseph 
Brant Museum, Burlington, Ontario, in 
1969, and printed by the Halton Press 
Limited, Burlington, Ontario: 

"William Johnson had an eye for a 
pretty girl and asked to meet this 
spirited Indian maiden. He took her as 
his third wife and Miss Molly was the 
gracious hostess in his home for the rest 
of his life." 

EXHIBIT "V :- 

And on page 51 of "Grand River" , by 
Mabel Dunham, published by T.H. Best 
Printing Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ontario, for 
McClelland & Stewart Limited, in 1945, is 
noted : 

"At the time of his marriage with Molly 
Brant, Sir William built a lordly mansion 
of frame sidings in imitation of stone 
blocks. He called it Johnson Hall. It 
stands to-day at Johnstown, N.Y. There He 
and "Miss Molly" lived, an incongruous 
couple, in princely style, half Indian 
and half White." 

EXHIBIT "W : - 

Then on page 40 of "Six Nations Indians 
- Yesterday and To-Day , 1867 - 1942" , 
which was the souvenir book published by 
the Six Nations Agricultural Society to 

129 



commemorate the Diamond Anniversary of 
that organization, is noted: 

"According to tradition. Sir William 
met the lovely sixteen-year old Indian 
girl whose Indian name was "Deyonwa- 
donte", at a militia muster, and admiring 
her beauty and spirit in leaping onto a 
horse being ridden by an officer, took 
her as his wife according to Indian 
custom • '* 

EXHIBIT 'X ♦ : - 

And noted on page 15 of "The Canadians 
- Joseph Brant" , by A. Roy Petrie, 
printed by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited, 
150 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Ontario, M3B 
2T5, in 1978: (A.Roy Petrie is Superin- 
tendent of Operations for the Lincoln 
County Board of Education). 

"In 1759, his wife died and he married 
Joseph Brant's Sister Molly, according to 
Indian rites". 

EXHIBIT ^ Y • : - 

From "A Brief Lecture on Sir John 

Johnson" , prepared by R.W.Bro. Jacob 

(Jack) Pos , is also noted this on page 9: 

"After the death of his second wife 
Caroline, Sir William brought Molly Brant 
into the household to care for his 
children. It is generally assumed that 
the two were married by Indian ceremony." 

EXHIBIT ^Z • : - 

I would also comment, that I would have 
liked to have had a footnote on Bro. 
Montgomery's review, as to where he 
obtained the statement which was suppos- 



130 



edly taken from William L. Stone's book, 
and which he quotes thusly: 

** Stone says that Johnson employed 

as his housekeeper Mary Brant by 

whom he has several children." 

I have searched and have been unable to 
locate this passage, but I have located 
the following on page 18, of Book I, 
"Life of Joseph Brant - ThayendaneRea" , 
by William L. Stone: 

"It is likewise well known, that after 
the decease of Lady Johnson, (an event 
which occurred several years antecedent 
to the period of which we are now 
writing, and before he had won his 
Baronetcy at Lake George), Sir William 
took to his home as his wife, Mary Brant, 
or "Miss Molly", as she was called, with 
whom he lived until his decease in 1774, 
and by whom he had several children." 

"This circumstance is thus mentioned by 
Mrs. Grant in her delightful book already 
referred to: "Becoming a widower in the 
prime of life, he (William Johnson) 
connected himself with an Indian maiden, 
daughter of a Sachem, who possessed an 
uncommonly agreeable person and good 
understanding; and whether ever formally 
married to him according to our usage, or 
not, continued to live with him in great 
union and affection all his life." 

Brother Montgomery states also, on page 
2, of his review, a reference to one of 

Sir William's major biographers 

James Thomas Flexner, who in 1959 had 
this to say in this regard: 



131 



"Flexner refers to her (Molly Brant) as 
Johnson's "First Formal Indian Wife", but 
then goes on later to say that they were 
not married according to the white man * s 
rites " 

Could it not be possible that Molly 
Brant was married to Sir William accord- 
ing to the Indian rites, and it is 
because of this that in many books she is 
referred to as. Sir William's wife? Does 
it always have to be a marriage according 
to a "White Man's Tradition" that 
constitutes a "marriage"? It is my 
feeling that the interpretation of 
"Marriage" is the controversial point- 
whether married by "Indian Rites", or by 
the "White Man's Rites". 

EXHIBIT ^ AA ' : - 

In regard to the Portrait of Joseph 
Brant. I would refer Bro. Montgomery to 
page 4, of W.Bro. Gerard Brett's paper, 
"The Life and Masonic Career of Joseph 
Brant" , and which was presented at The 
Canadian Masonic Research Association, at 
Toronto, Ontario, on May 19, 1953, which 
states : 

"Throughout his stay he appears to have 
received attention from various people of 
note; he is said to have been intimate 
with Boswell (There is no mention of him 
in the Life of Johnson, but the Boswell 
Diaries for that year are not yet 
published), and at Boswell's request, to 
have sat at Romney for the famous 
portrait which is now in the National 
Gallery of Canada". 



It seems when I 



a s 



t h i 



which 



note a statement such 
was made by such a 



132 



reputable a research person as W.Bro. 
Brett, then I will accept it, and will 
continue to accept such until it is 
proven that it is untrue in a complete 
and indisputable manner. 

In regard to the Education of Joseph 
Brant prior to attending the Moor Charity 
School in Lebanon, Connecticut, Bro. 
Montgomery wished to know just what 
authority I had that Brant attended a 
settler's school. I therefore present the 
f ol lowing : 

EXHIBIT ' BB • : - 

From "The Canadians - Joseph Brant" , by 
A. Roy Petrie, and printed by Fitzhenry 
and Whiteside Limited, on page 18, the 
following is noted: 

"In addition to his training as a 
soldier, he was sent to the village 
school, and later to a school for Indian 
students at Fort Hunter." 

EXHIBIT ^CC : - 

From "Canadian Portraits of Famous 
Indians" , by Ethel Brant 
published by Clark Irwin & Co 
Toronto, Ontario, 1960, I noted on page 
17 , this : 

"A settlers' school had been started in 
the Village of Canajoharie, where reading 
and writing were taught. Here Joseph was 
sent to study, but he was a reluctant 
pupil; their beloved river, the Mohawk, a 
busy water-road, was a sore temptation to 
any school boy. Later he went to a school 
for Indian children at Fort Hunter." 

EXHIBIT ^DD'- 

133 



On page 28 of "Canadian Portraits of 
Famous Indians' 



as noted immediately 
above, is also noted: 

"Christine and Joseph had known each 

other when they were pupils in the Fort 

Hunter School The Reverend John 

Stuart of Fort Hunter, who had been their 
schoolmaster . " 

EXHIBIT ^EE • : - 

And from "Joseph Brant - A Man For His 
People" , written by Helen Caister 
Robinson, and printed by Longman Canada, 
Limited, Don Mills, Ontario, in 1971: 
(Mrs. Robinson was born in Tavistock, 
Ontario, an active member of the Canadian 
Author's Association, and the Big Sister 
Movement, and now resides in Toronto, 
Ontario), on page 22 is: 

"Each day now, Thayendanegea went to 
the village school. With sons and 
daughters of white settlers in the 
neighborhood, he learned to read, write, 
do simple arithmetic sums. 

He also learned the rules of Council 
procedure . " 

I used these and others similar, to 
conclude the statement in my paper - and 
I also note in Bro. Montgomery's review 
on page 3, that he used Mrs. Helen 
Caistor Robinson as a specific reliable 
reference, and so it is no doubt that the 
above reference Exhibit EE should be an 
accepted fact being written by the same 
per son . 

In reference to the Communion Set given 
by Queen Anne in 1712, to "Her Chapel of 
the Mohawks" : 



134 



EXHIBIT 'FF • : - 

I copied from "The Life and Masonic 
Career of Joseph Brant" , which was the 
paper presented by W.Bro. Gerard Brett, 
to the Canadian Masonic Research Assoc- 
iation at the Ninth meeting of the 
Association held in Toronto, Ontario, on 
May 19, 1953, page 6, paragraph 2: 

"The Bible and Four Pieces of the 
Silver are still treasured at Brantford; 
two pieces of Silver were taken to 
Deseronto on the northern side of Lake 
Ontario, when some of the Six Nations 
moved there at a later date." 

Here again I have accepted W.Bro. 
Brett's statement to start with. 

EXHIBIT "GC : - 

But, when I visited the Woodland Indian 
Cultural Education Centre, at Brantford, 
I was presented with a booklet entitled 
"Two Hundred Years Along The Grand" , and 
in it I noted an illustration of Queen 
Anne Silver, Six Nations Council, and 
there are four pieces as I have noted. 

In regards to the fact of Sir William 

Johnson being a "Chief", I would refer 

Bro. Montgomery to some of the following 
Stat ement s : 

EXHIBIT "HH* : - 

Taken from the publication "Six Nations 
Indians - Yesterday and To-Day , 18 6 7- 
19 4 2" , which was the souvenir book 
published by the Six Nations Agricultural 
Society to commemorate the Diamond 
Anniversary of that organization. On page 
40, and in the 4th paragraph is: 

135 



"It was shortly after receiving this 
appointment he was made a Colonel of the 
Militia, followed by the highest honour 
the Six Nations could give, that of a 
Chief, Colonel Johnson was given the 
name, W-r a- i -ya-ge , said to mean - ^Chief 
of Affairs*. He was also appointed to the 
Executive Council of New York State'*. 

EXHIBIT ^ II * :- 

And from *' Joseph Brant ~ A Man For His 
People'* , by Helen Caister Robinson, and 
printed by Longman Canada, Limited, Don 
Mills, Ontario, 1971, on page 14 is this: 

**By common consent he had been adopted 
into the Mohawk Nation with the name of 
Warragheyagey. " 



EXHIBIT ^ JJ * : - 

On page 12 of "Life of Joseph Brant- 
Thayendanegea , Book I, by William L. 
Stone, which was published by Alexander 
V. Blake, New York, 1838, and reprinted 
by Kraus Reprint Co., New York, 1969, we 
noted here in the footnote: 



"The name which the Indians had 
conferred upon Sir William and by which 
he was almost invariably addressed". 

Surely the Indians would not ^confer* 

such a name on an ordinary citizen - it 

would surely have been when he was made a 
^Chief • . 



A Brief Lecture on Sir 



EXHIBIT ^KK • : - 

Finally, fr om 
John Johnson" , prepared by R.W.Bro. Jacob 
(Jack) Pos, (no date, nor where and when 



136 



presented)*, I noted the following on 
page 6, in regard to Sir William Johnson: 

*Editor's note, this was a paper prepared 
for a lecture tour of Waterloo and 
Wellington Masonic Districts to raise 
sufficient funds for the return to Canada 
from New Zealand of the ^Patent of 
Appointment' issued to Sir John Johnson 
when he was appointed Provincial Grand 
Master for Upper Canada in 1788. 

"He (William Johnson) differed from all 
other Indian traders in two respects. He 
was scrupulously honest with the Indians, 
and he would sell them no liquor. An 
honest trader was a new experience for 
the Indians, and he was soon accepted and 

deeply respected He became guide, 

counselor and friend, and was soon 
elected a war chief of the Mohawk Nation 
under the name of Wa r r ag h - i - y a - g a y (He 
who does much business)." 

EXHIBIT "LL' : - 

On page 69 of R.W.Bro. Pos' review, he 
made reference to the date of the 
Organizational meeting of Barton Lodge 
No. 10, as I noted as January 31, 1796, 
as being incorrect, I would refer to a 
statement noted on page 253 of the Grand 
Lodge Publication "Whence Come We" , and 
of which R.W.Bro. Wallace McLeod was the 
Chairman of the historical portion. It 
states this in reference to John Baptiste 
Rous seau : 

"In 1795 he removed from York to 
Ancaster where he was one of the first 
settlers. That year he was initiated into 
St. John's Lodge of Friendship, No. 2, 



1 37 



Newark, and the next year (1796) he was a 
charter member of Lodge No. 10, Barton." 

As mentioned at the beginning of this 
rebuttal, there are a great many inter- 
pretations of the life of this except- 
ional person. It seems that there is 
hardly any part of the life of Worshipful 
Brother Joseph Brant that cannot be 
disputed in some manner. I have drawn 
attention to but a few, but I know that 
there must be many more. 

The various items that have been 
written by noted historians, and we feel 
can be contradicted at the present time, 
I feel should still be kept for ref- 
erence. These must have come from some 
reference known only by these historians, 
that have not as yet been uncovered by 
us, but could be brought to light at some 
time in the future, and at that time it 
could possibly fill in the "unknown" 
blanks in these historical sketches. 

William W. Mitchell 



1 38 



RUDYARD KIPLING****** 

by 

R.W.Bro. E. David Warren 
P.D.D.G.M., Hamilton A 

In the month of April in the year 1886 
there was brought to the light in a lodge 
working under the English Constitution in 
a city situated near one of the outer- 
most frontiers of the far-flung British 
Empire, a young candidate of the name of 
Rudyard Kipling. 

This young initiate was destined to 
become one of the great lights of the 
world of English letters and to enrich 
the literature of our Craft with some of 
its finest treasures. 

Joseph Rudyard Kipling - he early 
dropped his first name Joseph - was born 
at Bombay on 30th December, 1865, the 
first child of John Lockwood and Alice 
Kipling. At the time of Rudyard's birth 
his father, an artist of considerable 
talent, held the position of principal of 
the new school of art in the City of 
Bombay . 

On his father's side the family was 
wholly Yorkshire. On the mother's side 
the blood was Ce 1 t i c -H i gh 1 and Scottish, 
Irish and Welsh. She was a Macdonald, 
descending from a clansman who emigrated 
from the Highlands to Northern Ireland 



****** 

Paper presented at the Regular 

Meeting of The Heritage Lodge held in 

Belleville, Ontario, May 27, 1987. 

139 



after the 'A5 rebellion. It is inter- 
esting to note that both Kipling's 
grandfathers were Methodist ministers. 

As the Indian climate was considered 
injurious to the health of young children 
of European parentage, Rudyard and his 
young sister were boarded out in the 
family of a retired naval captain at 
Southsea, near Portsmouth, England, from 
1871 to 1877. 



a s 



From 1878 to 1882, Kipling w-^ ^ 
scholar at the United Services College at 
Westward Ho near Bideford, in North 
Devon . 



Of his life at this school he has given 
us a highly-coloured record in his famous 
school story, "Stalky & Co." and he has 
also paid a generous tribute to the 
masters who taught him there in the 
verses entitled "A School Song". 

~A School Song" 

Western Wind and open surge 

Took us from our mothers - 

Flung us on a naked shore 

(Twelve bleak houses by the shore! 

Seven summers by the shore! ) 

Mid two hundred brothers. 

There we met with famous men 

Set in office o'er us. 

This we learned from famous men. 

Knowing not its uses. 

When they shewed, in daily work, 

Man must finish off his work - 

Right or wrong, his daily work - 

.. And without excuses. 



140 



Wherefore praise we famous men. 
From whose bays we borrow - 
They that put aside To-day - 
All the joys of their To-day - 
And with toil of their To-day - 
Bought for us tomorrow! 

Leaving school at the age of seventeen, 
Kipling rejoined his family in India. At 
Lahore and later at Allahabad he gained 
valuable journalistic experience first on 
the staff of the "Civil and Military 
Gazette", and then on that of the 
"Pioneer", and also laid the foundations 
of his literary career with the publi- 
cation of "Departmental Ditties", "Plain 
Tales from the Hills", and other Indian 
s t or ies • 

In 1889 he left India for London, where 
he immediately achieved remarkable 
literary success. In 1892 he married an 
American lady, Caroline Starr Balestier, 
by whom he had three children. After 
their marriage the Kiplings resided for 
several years - until 1896 - at Brattle- 
boro in the State of Vermont U.S.A., as 
neighbours of Mrs. Kipling's family. 

In 1897 he visited South Africa, 
Australia and New Zealand, returning to 
England by way of India where they lived 
first at Torquay, then at Rottingdean 
near Brighton, until finally they settled 
at "Batemans", a Jacobean mansion, at 
Burwash in Sussex, where they resided 
until Kipling's death in 1936. 

Kipling as a writer was a many-sided 

genius and has a universal appeal to all 

lovers of good literature. He speaks to 

every one of us in our own language. 



141 



In appreciation of his genius I cannot 
do better than quote Hilton Brown: 

"Kipling brought the universe before 
the multitude; he had a note in his music 
for every listener; he threw his pearls 
to every corner of the market place. He 
covered the world and carried it as a toy 
in his hand; if his own heart remained 
hidden, he had looked closely into the 
hearts of others - and he shared his 
knowledge of them freely. In the wide 
humanity of his dealings he touched 
everyone sometime somewhere." 

In 1907 Kipling was awarded the Nobel 
prize for literature. In 1927 the Royal 
Society of Literature awarded him the 
Society's gold medal. 



Kipling was a voluminous reader and 
derived inspiration from many sources, 
but all who are familiar with his work 
will agree that the three great sources 
from which come a great deal of his 
literary power are the Bible, Shakespeare 
and the legend and stately ritual of 
Freemasonry . 

During his most impressionable years he 
was brought up at Southsea in a household 
whose members were deeply religious, and 
where Bible reading and hymn singing were 
essential features of their way of life. 
This early familiarity with the Bible 
gave him an easy use of prophetic 
language. Readers of Kipling's writings 
cannot but be struck with the remarkable 
frequency and the way in which Old 
Testament names, stories, plots and 
analogies are introduced always with 

142 



striking effect. The sonorous cadences 
and rhythms of "Hymns Ancient and Modern" 
have been used by Kipling with fine 
effect in many of his poems. 

Notwithstanding Kipling's Wesleyan 
antecedents and the early Calvinistic 
influences of the Southsea household, he 
never became a devout follower of any 
particular creed or dogma. Had the young 
Kipling retained any tendencies toward a 
narrow sectarianism when he returned to 
India at the age of seventeen, they were 
probably shaken by contact with the 
mystically tolerant Hindu and the 
aggressively devout Muslims. 

Kipling's religious belief, of which he 
was very reticent, holding that a man's 
private religious beliefs were not for 
publication, were probably as basic as 
that set out in the affirmation into our 
order - namely, a belief in God as the 
Great Architect of the Universe. Of this 
belief he made a personal confession to a 
young lady friend to whom he wrote, "I 
believe in the existence of a personal 
God to whom we are personally responsible 
for wrong doing. That it is our duty to 
follow and our peril to disobey the ten 
ethical laws laid down for us by Him and 
His prophets." 

His attitude to all religions was of a 
wide toleration, which he expressed in 
the se 1 ine s : 

My brother kneels, so saith Kabiv 
To stone and brass in heathen wise. 
But in my brother's voice I hear 
My own unanswered agonies. 
His God is as his fates assign 



143 



His prayer is all the world 



and mine 



All through his literary life Kipling 
extolled and preached the acceptance of 
and obedience to "the Law", 

Keep ye the Law - be swift in all 

obedi ence - 

Clear the land of evil, drive the road 

and bridge the ford. 

Make ye sure to each his own 

That he reap where he hath sown. 

By the peace among Our peoples 

let men know we serve the Lord! 

"The Law", according to Kipling's 
interpretation, meant that arrangement of 
life under which the common man is 
enabled to do the best, which is in him 
for himself for himself, his family, and 
the rest of the world, including the 
generations yet to come. 

He believed that this arrangement of 
life is planned for us all in the Volume 
of the Sacred Law, particularly in the 
Old Testament, which we are to consider 
as the unerring standard of truth and 
justice, and which teaches us the 
important duties we owe to God, our 
neighbour and ourselves. 

From his experience in India he derived 
the conception that mankind was divided 
into two classes - those incapable of 
managing their own affairs, and those 
almost divinely appointed to manage these 
affairs for them. He held that some must, 
of necessity, rule and teach, so others 
must, of course, learn, submit, and obey. 



144 



From his study of "The Law" and his 
experience in India he distilled a 
philosophy of life which may best be 
described as a cult of action, of 
worthwhile work and of service for the 
welfare of our fellow man. 

In order to qualify for reception into 
this cult he exhorts us to cultivate the 
manly virtues of self-reliance and 
independence, the exercise of restraint, 
observance of law and order, obedience to 
authority, performance of duty, and 
subjection to discipline. 

No easy hope or lies 

Shall bring us to our goal. 
But iron sacrifice 

Of body, will, and soul. 
Though all we knew apart. 

The old commandments stand - 
In courage keep your heart. 

In strength lift up your hand. 

One of the principal tenets of 
Kipling's philosophy was that greatness 
might come from struggle and endurance 
against heavy odds. 

Kipling was initiated into Freemasonry 
on April 5th, 1886, in Lodge of Hope and 
Perseverance No. 782, E.G., at Lahore, 
India, at the age of 20 by special 
dispensation, as his father was not a 
Freemason, because the lodge hoped for a 
good secretary. However, before he could 
be appointed Secretary he was transferred 
to Allahabad where he affiliated with 
Lodge Peace with Philanthropy. 

But before leaving Lahore, he arranged 
with his artist father to advise in 



145 



decorating the bare walls of the Masonic 
Hall with hangings after the prescription 
of Solomon's Temple. 

"I was initiated," wrote Kipling, "by a 
Hindu, passed by a Mohammedan, and raised 
by an Englishman." Here he met Muslims, 
Hindus, Sikhs, members of the Araya- 
Samaj, and of the Br ahmo-Sama j , and a Jew 
Tyler who was priest and butcher to his 
little community in the city. 

In the verses entitled, "The Mother 
Lodge," Kipling has given us a descript- 
ion of an Indian Lodge of which , no 
doubt. Lodge Hope and Perseverance was 
typical. The description is given as a 
nostalgic reminiscence of a time-expired 
British soldier who had served the Queen 
somewhere east of Suez - out in far-off 
India where he had been made a Freemason. 

Of his initiation into Freemasonry 
Kipling has written, "So another world 
opened to me, which I needed." 

This need of Kipling's which Free- 
masonry satisfied was a craving for a 
world-religion which would unite all 
worthy men irrespective of caste, class 
or creed, particularly the sort of men 
whom he termed the "Sons of Martha", the 
men who bear the burden of the world's 
work . 

Returning to Lahore he took his Mark 
Degree in Lodge Fidelity, and the Royal 
Ark Mariners Degree in Lodge Ararat. In 
his later years he was a member of Lodge 
Motherland No. 3456, E.G., and of the 
Authors Lodge, London, whose regular 
meetings he attended when circumstances 



146 



permitted. The famous Scottish Lodge 
Canongate Kilwinning No. 2, S.C., paid 
him the signal honour of appointment as 
poet laureate of the lodge, an office in 
which another great Masonic poet, Robert 
Burns, was inaugurated in 1787. When 
Kipling was a member of the Imperial War 
Graves Commission he became a foundation 
member of two lodges whose members were 
recruited from the staff and employees of 
the Commission. Lodge "Builders of the 
Silent Cities", No. 12 on the register of 
the grande Nationale of France, and Lodge 
"Builders", No. 4948, E.C, 

KIPLING'S MASONIC STORIES 

In the body of Kipling's work there are 
over thirty poems and stories with 
references to Freemasonry. One of the 
stories, "The Man Who Would Be King", is 
acclaimed as the finest short story in 
the English language, and one of the 
great short stories of the world. This 
story was written by Kipling when he was 
a young Freemason working as a journalist 
in India. The fifty-two pages of this 
magnificent story have enough packed in 
them to make the fortunes of a dozen 
romantic novels. It is a miracle of 
compr es s ion . 

For the account of how two adventurers 
reached Kafiristan in disguise, of how 
they discovered that the natives knew the 
degrees and marks of Masonry up to the 
Fellow Craft degree, of how, by the aid 
of Freemasonry and Martini rifles they 
established themselves as Kings and Grand 
Masters of Kafiristan, and of the final 
grim tragedy of their adventure, I must 
refer you to the story itself. 



147 



Over thirty years after the publication 
of "The Man Who Would Be King", he 
published another great Masonic story, 
"In the Interests of the Brethren". At 
this time of his life Kipling was quite 
plainly seeking for a Lodge in which he 
could find fulfillment and peace, and 
with this desire in his mind he wrote the 
story of the Lodge of Instruction 
attached to Lodge Faith and Works No. 
5837, E.G. (this was, of course, a 
fictitious lodge and number). In the 
person of Worshipful Brother Burges, 
Master of the Lodge, he has given us a 
pc2u picture of a very worthy Freemason, 
who believes, that, "All ritual is 
fortifying. Ritual is a natural necessity 
tor mankind. The more things are upset, 
the more they fly to it. I abhor slovenly 
ritual." The we were given a description 
of the furnishings and appurtenances of 
the lodge room in loving detail, an 
appreciation of the quality and appro- 
priateness of the instrumental and vocal 
music, and some excellent thumbnail 
sketches of several of the regular 
br e t hr en . 

The place of meeting is London, during 
the first World War, and the Lodge 
provides a place where the war-stricken 
soldier Masons from the London hospitals 
can meet in peace, love and harmony. 

The visiting brethren are invited to 
work one of the degrees, which they 
flounder through rather badly. When the 
amateurs have finished they demand an 
exemplification working of their bungled 
ceremony by regular brethren of the 
lodge. "Then", writes Kipling, "I 



1 48 



realized for the first time what word and 
gesture perfect ritual can be brought to 
mean • " 

Then, as Kipling and his friend. 
Worshipful Brother Burges, leave after 
the final toast, the latter gives us a 
final thought: "Think what could be done 
by Masonry, through Masonry, for all the 
world. " 

When Kipling gave this story to the 
world he appended to it a set of verses 
entitled, "Banquet Night". Evidently, 
when he was writing the story, it must 
have occurred to him that our traditional 
history is rather vague as to the origin 
of that essential part of our regular 
meetings - the festive board - refresh- 
ment after labour - the South. So he 
proceeded to invent a legend which tells 
how this very pleasant custom originated, 
and this is what he tells us - 

"Once in so often". King Solomon 

said 
Watching his quarrymen drill the 

s tone 
We will club our garlic and wine 

and bread 
And banquet together beneath my 

Throne , 
And all the Brethren shall come to 

that mes s 
As fellow-craftsmen - no more 

and no less. 

"Send a swift shallop to Hiram of 

Tyre, 
Felling and Floating our beautiful 

trees , 
Say that the brethren and I desire 



149 



Talk with our brethren who use 

the seas , 
And we shall be happy to meet 

t hem at me s s 
As fellow-craftsmen - no more 

and no less. 

"Carry this message to Hiram 

Abif - 
Excellent Master of forge and mine 
I and the brethren would like it if 
He and the brethren would come 

to d ine . 
(Garments from Bazrah or morn- 
ing dress) 
As fellow-craftsmen - no more 
and no less. 

"God gave the Hyssop and Cedar 

t he i r pi ace - 
Also the Bramble, the Fig, and 

the Thorn - 
But that is no reason to black a 

man * s face 
Because he is not what he hasn't 

been borne . 
And, as touching the Temple, I 

hold and profess 
We are fellow-craftsmen - no 
more and no less." 

So it was ordered and so it was 

done 
And the hewers of wood and the 

Masons o f Mark 
With foc'stle hands of the Sidon 

run 
And Navy Lords from the "Royal 

Ark" . 
Came and sat down and were 

merry at me s s . 
As fellow-craftsmen - no more and 



150 



no less. 

The quarries' are hotter than Hi- 
ram ' s forge 
No one is safe from the dog-whip's 

reach . 
It's mostly snowing up Lebanon 

gorge , 
And its mostly blowing off Joppa 

beach ; 
But once in so often, the messenger 

br ings 
Solomon's mandate: "Forget these 

things ! 
Brother to Beggars and Fellow to 

Kings , 
Companion of Princes - forget 

these things ! 
Fellow-craftsmen - forget these 

things ! " 

There is another poem of Kipling's 
entitled "The Palace" which, in symbolic 
form reminds Freemasons of today of what 
they owe to their brethren of the past 
and of their duty to those who follow 
after. When we come into Freemasonry we 
find that we are heirs to a great 
tradition. We are the fortunate success- 
ors of a long line of worthy brethren who 
have bequeathed to us a noble science, a 
beneficent system of morality and a 
mystic tie of brotherhood illustrated by 
an eloquent ritual and a stately ceremon- 
ial. It is our duty, in the short time 
permitted to us, to see that our work is 
good and worthy of those who have gone 
before; and it is our responsibility to 
pass the heritage on to our posterity 
pure and unsullied as we received it, so 
that they will know that we, the builders 
of today, have worked in accordance with 



151 



the teachings of the square 
and the plumb-rule. 



the level. 



Kipling was acclaimed as the Laureate 
of the British Empire. He made popular 
the ideal of a common imperial patriotism 
transcending every diversity of birth and 
circumstance, ennobled by an ideal of 
selfless service. 

"And what do they know of England, who 
only England know?" wrote Kipling, in his 
great poem of Empire, "The English Flag." 

Professor Carrington, in his biography, 
tells us how Kipling helped the 
Englishman to answer that question: 
"Since the story of the British fifty 
years ago was the story of the British 
overseas, in the age of the great empire 
builders - Cromer, Curzon, Kitchener, 
Milner, Johnston, Lugard and Rhodes - it 
was Kipling's task to reveal the secrets 
of their actual life to his contempor- 
aries. For a whole generation, homesick- 
ness was reversed by Kipling's magic 
spell. Englishmen felt the days of 
England sick and cold, and the skies grey 
and old, heard the East a-calling, fawned 
on the younger nations, learned to speak 
the jargon of the seven seas; while in 
the outposts of the Empire, men who read 
no other books, recognised and approved 
glimpses of their own lives in phrases 
from Kipling's verse: the flying fishes 
and the thunder clouds over the Bay of 
Bengal, the voyage outward bound till the 
old lost stars wheel back, the palm trees 
bowing down beneath a low African moon, 
the wild tide race that whips the harbour 
mouth at Melbourne, the broom flowering 
above the windy town of Wellington, the 



I 52 



Islands where the sea egg flames on the 
coral and the long-backed breakers croon 
their endless ocean legends to the lazy 
locked lagoon." 

Yet the writer who did all this could, 
when the occasion demanded, be a severe 
critic of his own people. Such an 
occasion was Queen Victoria's Diamond 
Jubilee, when the power of Britain was at 
its greatest might and the Empire was at 
its widest extent. It was a moment of 
arrogance and boasting. Kipling's 
reaction was to remind the nation that 
humility not pride, awe not arrogance, a 
sense of transience not a sense of 
permanence, should be the keynotes of the 
imperial festival. 

Kipling stresses our duty to remember 
the sacred and indissoluble attachment to 
the country whence we derived our birth 
and infant nature, when he writes:- 

Land of our Birth, our faith, our 

pr ide , 
For whose dear sake our fathers 

died; 
Oh, Motherland, we pledge to thee 
Head, heart, and hand through the 

year s to be ! 

The lesson of natural equality and 
mutual dependence which every candidate 
received on the night of his initiation 
is told in other words by Kipling in the 
first stanza of his great "Ballad of East 
and Wes t . " 



Oh, East is East, and West is 
West, and never the twain 



1 53 



sha 1 1 mee t , 
Till Earth and Sky stand presently 
at God's great Judgment 
Seat ; 
But there is neither East nor 
West, Border, nor Breed, nor 
Birth , 
When two strong men stand face to 
face though they come from 
the ends of the earth! 

No lines of Kipling's have been more 
freely quoted and more often misquoted in 
exactly the opposite sense to that which 
Kipling gave them. The first couplet of 
the stanza is an echo from the Psalms 
where the estranging distances of the 
focal points of the compass are used as a 
figure of speech to express the univers- 
ality of the Divine Law; the second 
couplet is Kipling's commentary, with the 
same theme as the psalmist. The divine 
spark in human nature transcends all 
earthly distinctions. This was the life- 
long message that Kipling preached, 
acceptance of "The Law" revealed to 
strong men who recognize each others 
valour. The moral of the verse is not 
that East and West differ, but that men 
of all races are alike at heart. 

That no eminence of station should make 
us forget that we are Brothers was 
emphasized by Kipling when he wrote:- 

Deliver me from every pride - 

the Middle High and Low - 
That bars me from a brother's 

side whatever pride he show 
And purge me from all heresies 

of thought and speech and pen 
That bid me judge him otherwise 



154 



than I am judged. Amen! 
That I may sing of crow or King 

or road borne company. 
That I may labour in my day, 

vocation and degree 
To prove the same by deed and 

name, and hold unshakingly 
(Where'er I go what ' er I know, 

who'er my neighbour be) 
This single faith in Life and 

Death and to Eternity: 
The people. Lord Thy people, are 

good enough for me. 

In the verse entitled "The Wage 
Slaves", he points out to us that those 
who are placed in the lowest spoke of 
fortune's wheel, the hired labourers, the 
wage earners, are equally entitled to our 
regard . 

Not such as scorn the loitering street. 

Or waste to earn its praise. 

Their noontide's unreturning heat 

About their morning ways; 

But such as dower each mortgaged hour 

Alike with clean courage - 

Even the men who do the work 

For which they draw the wage - 

Men, like to Gods, that do the work 

For which they draw the wage. 

In the final charge to the candidates 
at his initiation he is exhorted to 
dedicate himself to such pursuits as will 
enable him to continue respectable in 
life, useful to mankind, and to become an 
ornament of the Society of which he has 
become a member. 

We have said before that one of the 
principal tenets of Kipling's social 



I 55 



philosophy was the dedication to worth- 
while work, and the men whose worth he 
extolled in golden words were those who 
had rendered themselves useful to 
mankind, the men of his generation who 
had bridged the Forth, built the Uganda 
railway, irrigated the Punjab, crushed 
the ore of the Golden Mile at Kalgoorlie, 
served with the mounties at Klondike, 
tunneled through the Rockies, revealed 
the secrets of the Earth's surface, and 
learned to fly. These were the men whom 
he called the "Sons of Martha". 

Kipling's work nobly teaches the worth 
of those old fashioned virtues of man 
which we hope will never go out of 
fashion - to do one's duty, to live 
stoically, to live cleanly, to live 
cheerfully. Such lessons can never be 
taught too often, and these are the 
lessons we Freemasons should carry, by 
word and example, to the world beyond our 
1 odge s . 

The impulse and circumstance of 
Kipling's own life were important only in 
relation to the Law, that temple built to 
the design of the Great Overseer to whom 
he made this prayer:- 

My newcut Ashlar takes the light 
Where crimson-blank the windows flare. 
By my own work before the night. 
Great Overseer, I make my prayer. 
If there be good in that I wrought 
Thy Hand compelled Master, Thine - 
Where I have failed to meet Thy thought 
I know though Thee, the blame was mine. 
One instant's toil to Thee denied 
Stands all Eternity's offence. 
Of that I did with Thee to guide. 



1 56 



To Thee, through Thee be excellence. 
The depth and dream of my desire. 
The bitter paths wherein I stay. 
Though knowest Who has made the Fire, 
Thou knowest Who hast made the Clay, 
Who, lest all thought of Eden fade, 
..Bring'st Eden to the craftsman's brain- 
Godlike to muse on his own Trade 
And man-like stand with God again! 
One stone the more swings into place 
In that dread Temple of Thy worth. 
It is enough that, through Thy Grace, 
I saw nought common on Thy Earth. 
Take not that vision from my ken - 
Oh, whatso'er may spoil or speed 
Help me to need no aid from men 
That I may help such men as need. 

In the echoes of these words of 
Kipling's we hear our own unanswered 
agonies; his prayer is all the world's- 
and ours ! 

So Mote it be ! 



Dav i d Warren 



157 



GUIDELINES FOR THOSE PREPARING PAPERS 
FOR PRESENTATION TO THE HERITAGE LODGE 

The following notes are assembled to 
assist those who may wish to present a 
paper at a meeting of The Heritage Lodge. 
They are designed to maintain a consis- 
tent literary style and quality. 

COPYRIGHT : 

1. The submission of a paper to The 
Heritage Lodge grants to the 
Lodge the full power to print, 
reprint or otherwise publish the 
paper in whole or in part without 
requiring any further permission 
from the author, his heirs or 
assigns . 

2. The author should be aware that 
the paper could be subjected to 
review by other masons. 

FORM OF THE MANUSCRIPT : 

!• All manuscripts should be typed 
on one side of heavy bond paper 
and doubl e- spaced • Margins should 
be at least one inch and prefer- 
ably one and one-half inch on 
both sides; and one and three- 
quarter inch on top and bottom. 

2. Each sheet must be numbered 
sequentially at the bottom centre 
of the page. Insertions should be 
on a separate sheet and numbered, 
for example, 22A or 22B, and 
included as extra pages, showing 
clearly where the insertion is to 
be made . 



1 58 



SUBJECT MATTER OF THE MANUSCRIPT : 

1. The topic selected for presenta- 
tion is generally the choice of 
the author and, in most cases, 
relate to the history of Free- 
masonry. A suggested topic is a 
biographical sketch of a disting- 
uished mason, who may have made a 
significant contribution to our 
masonic heritage, or who may have 
participated in an important 
event that affected the course of 
masonic history. Other inter- 
esting topics could include: the 
history, development or evolution 
of lodge furniture, ornaments, 
jewels, working tools or ritual, 
and symbolism. 

LENGTH OF PRESENTATION : 

1. The time alloted for presentation 
of a paper in the lodge is NOT 
MORE THAN 45 MINUTES. Paper 
reviews and the summarizing 
rebuttal should not exceed 15 
minu t e s each • 

TIME SCHEDULING : 

1. When the date of presentation has 
been agreed upon, then set the 
target date for completion of the 
manuscript at least 15 WEEKS 
PRIOR TO THE DATE OF PRESENTA- 
TION. This will allow for the 
foil owi ng : 



159 



TIME (weeks) OPERATION 

1 - author mails original paper 

to program coordinator 

(P.C); 
2-P.C. makes copies and 

solicits reviewers; 
1 - P.C. mails copies to review- 
ers and edi tor ; 
3 - review paper and prepare 

written reviews; 
1 - mail reviews to P.C.; 
1 - P.C. assembles and makes 

copies of all written 

r evi ews ; 
1 - P.C. mails copies of written 

reviews to author and editor; 
3 - author prepares written 

rebut t a 1 ; 
1 - author mails written rebuttal 

to P.C; 
1 - P.C. mails author's rebuttal 

to edi tor . 



15 weeks - plus author's 
time to prepare 
the original 
pape r . 



EDITORIAL INSTRUCTIONS 

A. ABBREVIATIONS : 

1. Abbreviations can be divided into 
two classes: those included in 
the text and those in footnotes, 
endnotes and appendices. In 
general, abbreviations should be 
avoided in the text, but are 
acceptable in the appendices. 



160 



All offices should be written in 
full, for example: Deputy Grand 
Master, Past Master, Junior 
Warden, Senior Deacon, etc., and 
not shown as D.G.M., P.M., J.W., 
S.D., etc.; although a rank may 
be shown as "William Gavel, 
G.S.W."; however it is preferable 
to write it in full as in this 
instance: "William Gavel was 
invested with the rank of Grand 
Senior Warden". 



When the exact year is not known, 
the following should be used in 
the text: c. 1737. Acceptable in 



the text is 



SIC 



for 



"e.g." for ^for example'; 
for ^and so forth*. 



thus' 
"etc. 



For appendices the following may 
be used: "C" for ^century', ie, 
20th C; "b" for ^born'; "d" for 
"died', "Ibid" for "as in the 
previous reference'; "op. cit." 
for "in the work quoted'; "ed." 
for "edition'; "vol." for "vol- 
ume'; "n." for "number'; "p." for 
"page'; "pp." for "pages'; 
"illus." for "illustration'; "MS" 
for "Manuscript'; "A.Q.C." for 
the "Transactions' of the Quatuor 
Coronati Lodge, No. 2076, London. 



Ages should be expressed as "36 
years old", or "at the age of 
36", or "in his thirty-sixth 
year . 

FORMS OF REFERENCE: 



161 



1. Biblical references should be 
given t hus : 

1 Kings 6:21-30 or Ruth 2:19. 

2. Bibliographical references should 
be given in the form: 

Bailey, William K., "The Constitution of 
Grand Lodge, 1855-1979". 

Proceedings of The Heritage 
Lodge, No. 730, G.R.C. , Cambri- 
dge, Ontario, vol. 2, n. 6, pp. 
8-19, Sept. 1979. 

Carr, Harry, The Freemason at Work , 
Burgess & Son (Abingdon) Ltd., 
Oxfordshire, England, pp. 425, 
1976. 

The Age of Faith , Simon & 



Schuster, New York, 1950. 

Knoop, Douglas, G.P. Jones & Douglas 
H a m e r , The Early Masonic Catechi- 
sms , 2nd ed., pp. 40-44, London, 
1963. 

McLeod, Wallace E., "Simon McGillivray 
(ca 1785-1840)", (Inaugural 
Address), in A.Q.C., vol. 96, pp. 
1-35 , 1983 . 



C. DATES AND FIGURES : 

1. Dates should be shown as "15 
March" and not "the 15th of 
March' or 'March 15th'. A span of 
years should be written as "from 
1820 to 1833" and not 'from 1820- 
33'. However, "In the 1860s" is 
acceptable. Always use "eigh- 

162 



teenth century", never ^XVIII 
century*; but remember, when used 
as an adjective, the century 
should be written "18th-century 
artifacts" . 

2. All figures up to one hundred in 
the text should be spelt out, but 
figures are permissible for 
numbers greater than one hundred. 
One exception occurs when both 
appear in the same passage: in 
that case, a decision should be 
made as to which should be used: 
be consistent, either use all 
figures or all spelt out. 

D. CAPITALIZATION: 



1. Always use "first degree" in the 
text, never ^Ist degree*. The 
word lodge is to be used as in 
the two following examples: "The 
lodge met at Markham", and *'The 
Lodge of Friendship'*. Certain 
words relating to masonic 
symbolism such as (Three Great 
Lights, Moveable Jewels, Plumb 
Rule, etc.,) should be capital- 
ized. But others of common 
masonic usage such as (regalia, 
apron, collars, jewel, etc.,) 
need not be capitalized. Do not 
capitalize any word that does not 
need it. 

E. PUNCTUATION : 

1. It is unnecessary to go into to 
much detail, but perhaps three 
marks should be mentioned: 
dashes, these should be avoided 



163 



or used with great discretion; 
quotation marks, quotations are 
set within double quotation 
marks » and quotations within 
quotations are marked with single 
quotation marks; and lastly 
apostrophes, it is correct to 
write the possessive of a word or 
modern name ending in "s" as 
" . . . s • s •• . 

F. FOOTNOTES ; 

1. Footnotes should be avoided by 
incor-porating the relevant 
matter in the body of the text. 
It is felt that we cannot do 
better than follow the lead of 
Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076 
and say that in some instances 
notes are essential and it is the 
practice to collect these at the 
end of each paper rather than at 
the foot of each page. References 
are numbered chronologically or 
alphabetically with the corres- 
ponding numerical reference 
appearing in the text as a super- 
script, e.g. "MilborneS". q^ iY\ 
brackets, e.g. "Milborne (8)". 



164 



OUR DEPARTED BRETHREN 

The following names of deceased 
Brethren have come to our attention 
during the past year. Some dates of death 
were not known. 

FORD N. RUPERT, P.G.R. 

Kapuskas ing 

Init. Consecon Lodge No. 50 

Spruce Falls Lodge No. 648 

Died, May 24, 1986. 

TERRANCE JOHN THOM, P.M. 

Webbwood 

Espanola Lodge No. 527 

Died, May 28, 1986. 

TERRENCE R. WILLIAMS, P.D.D.G.M. 

(Charter Member) 

Ki t chener 

Twin City Lodge No. 509 

Died, October 25, 1986. 

HAROLD S. RODGERS, M.M. 

Brantford 

Reba Lodge No. 515 

Died, November 9, 1986 

ALBERT ROSS TUCKER, P.M. 

Wi 1 lowda 1 e 

Caledonia Lodge No. 637 

(Not advised of date of death) 

HERBERT FREDERICK BROMWICH, P.G.S. 

Unionv i 1 1 e 

Zeta Lodge No. 410 

(Not advised of date of death) 



165 



Please note corrections for bottom of 
page 14 3 of Proceedings for last year. 

ALFRED MAIZELS, P.M. 

Toronto 

Palestine Lodge No. 559 

Died, March, 1986. 

RAYMOND PRITCHARD RIVERS, M.M. 

Pe t er borough 

J.B. Hall Lodge No. 145 

Died, April 11, 1986 

WE CHERISH THEIR MEMORIES 



166 




GEORGE EDWARD ZWICKER 

Worshipful Master 1981 - 1982 

Born: 

July 15, 1922, Mahone Bay, Nova Scotia. 

Grew up on his father's dairy farm. 

Education: 

Mahon Bay High School. 

Correspondence course. Public and Labour Relat- 
ions, 1960. 



Military: 

Militia, West Nova Scotia Regt., 1939 

4th Princess Louise Dragoon Guards, 1940-45 

Reserved Force (WO 2), 1949-54 



167 



Professional : 

Canadian General Electric Co. , Peterborough. 
London Life Ins. and Cherney Bros., Peterboro- 
ugh 
R.O.P. Inspector and Supervisor, 1953-79 

Masonic : 

Initiated, Corinthian Lodge No. 101, 1955 

Worshipful Master, Corinthian Lodge, 1979 

Historian, Corinthian Lodge, (to date), 1983 

Charter Member The Heritage Lodge No. 730, 1977 

Worshipful Master, The Heritage Lodge, 1982 

Secretary, Peterborough Masonic Dist. 1985 

Grand Steward, G.R.C., 1986 

Grand Historian, G.R.C. , 1987 

Peterborough Lodge of Perfection, 1971 

Peterborough Chapter Rose Croix, 1972 

Moore Sovereign Consistory, Hamilton, 1972 

Corinthian Chapter No. 36, R.A.M. , 1975 

(First Principal, 1983) 

Moore Preceptory No. 13, 1975 

(Presiding Preceptor, 1984) 

Member of the following organizations: 
Zabud Council No. 15, Royal and Select Masters, 
Hiram Council No. 24, Kawartha Lakes Lodge 
Royal Ark Mariners No. 21, Athelstan York Rite 
College No. 41, Kawartha Council No. 143- 
Allied Masonic Degrees (U.S.A.), Order of High 
Priesthood of Ontario, Moore Conclave No. 15- 
Red Cross of Constantine, Rameses Temple- 
A. A.O.N .M. S . , Kawartha Shrine Club, and Direc- 
tor Peterborough Masonic Temple Limited. 

Hobbies : 

Boating, fishing, golfing, oil painting, wood 

working, and Spanish guitar. 



168 



GRAND LODGE OFFICERS (1986-1987) 



THE MOST WORSHIPFUL THE GRAND MASTER 

M.W.Bro. A. Lou Copeland 
7449 Victoria Park Ave., Markham, L3R 2Y7 



THE DEPUTY GRAND MASTER 

R.W.Bro. William R. Pellow 

240 Wharncliffe Rd . N . . Suite 300; 

London, N6H 4P2 



THE GRAND SECRETARY 

M.W.Bro. Robert E. Davies 
P.O. Box 217, Hamilton, L8N 3C9 



THE HERITAGE LODGE OFFICERS (1986-1987) 

Worshipful Mas t er , W . Bro . Albert A. Barker 
Immediate Past Master , 

R.W.Bro. Robert S. Throop 
Senior Warden, R.W.Bro. Edsel C. Steen 
Junior Warden, R.W.Bro. Edmund V. Ralph 
Chaplain, R.W.Bro. Rev. Arthur W. Watson 
Treasurer, R.W.Bro. Duncan J. McFadgen 
Secretary, R.W.Bro. Rev. W. Gray Rivers 
Assistant Sec'y, W.Bro. George F. Moore 
Senior Deacon, V.W.Bro. Donald B. Kaufman 
Junior Deacon , R . W • Bro . Wilfred Greenhough 
Dir. of Ceremonies , R . W. Bro . C. Edwin Drew 
Inner Guard, W.Bro. Frank G. Dunn 

Tyler, R.W.Bro. Kenneth Whiting 

Senior Steward, W.Bro. Stephen Maizels 
Junior Steward, W.Bro. David Fletcher 
Organist, R.W.Bro. Leonard Hertel 

Historian, R.W.Bro. Fred Branscombe 

169 



PAST MASTERS 



1977 (U.D.) R.W.Bro. Jacob (Jack) Pos 

1978 R.W.Bro. Jacob (Jack) Pos 

1979 R.W.Bro. Keith R. Flynn 

1980 R.W.Bro. Donald Grinton 

1981 M.W.Bro. Ronald E. Groshaw 

1982 V.W.Bro. George E. Zwicker 

1983 R.W.Bro. Balfour LeGresley 

1984 R.W.Bro. David C. Bradley 

1985 R.W.Bro. C. Edwin Drew 

1986 R.W.Bro. Robert S. Throop 



CHAIRMEN, LODGE COMMITTEES (1986-87) 



Archivist, W.Bro. Glen T. Jones 

Editor, R.W.Bro. Jack Pos 

Masonic Information, 

R.W.Bro. David C. Bradley 
Finance, W.Bro. Donald D. Thornton 

Membership, R.W.Bro. William G. Bodley 
Bl. Cr. Mas'c Her., V.W.Bro. Alan D. Hogg 
Cen'l Data Bank, W.Bro. F. James M. Major 
Spec'l Events, R.W.Bro. K. L. Whiting 
Refreshments, W.Bro. Stephen Maizels 
Audi tors : 

R.W.Bros. James Curtis & Ken Bartlett 

The Heritage Corporation: 

President, Jack Pos 

Secretary, E. V. Ralph 

5 6 Cast legrove 

Don Mills, M3A 1L2 



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